bims-supasi Biomed News
on Sulfation pathways and signalling
Issue of 2024‒01‒28
eighteen papers selected by
Jonathan Wolf Mueller, University of Birmingham

  1. bioRxiv. 2024 Jan 08. pii: 2024.01.05.574350. [Epub ahead of print]
      Cathepsin K (CtsK) is a cysteine protease with potent collagenase activity. CtsK is highly expressed by bone-resorbing osteoclasts and plays an essential role in bone remodeling. Although CtsK is known to bind heparan sulfate (HS), the structural details of the interaction, and how HS ultimately regulates the biological functions of CtsK, remains largely unknown. In this report, we determined that CtsK preferably binds to larger HS oligosaccharides, such as dodecasaccharides (12mer), and that the12mer can induce monomeric CtsK to form a stable dimer in solution. Interestingly, while HS has no effect on the peptidase activity of CtsK, it greatly inhibits the collagenase activity of CtsK in a manner dependent on sulfation level. By forming a complex with CtsK, HS was able to preserve the full peptidase activity of CtsK for prolonged periods, likely by stabilizing its active conformation. Crystal structures of Ctsk with a bound 12mer, alone and in the presence of the endogenous inhibitor cystatin-C reveal the location of HS binding is remote from the active site. Mutagenesis based on these complex structures identified 6 basic residues of Ctsk that play essential roles in mediating HS-binding. At last, we show that HS 12mers can effectively block osteoclast resorption of bone in vitro . Combined, we have shown that HS can function as a multifaceted regulator of CtsK and that HS-based oligosaccharide might be explored as a new class of selective CtsK inhibitor in many diseases that involve exaggerated bone resorption.
  2. Elife. 2024 Jan 24. pii: RP90192. [Epub ahead of print]12
      TRAIL (TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand) is a potent inducer of tumor cell apoptosis through TRAIL receptors. While it has been previously pursued as a potential anti-tumor therapy, the enthusiasm subsided due to unsuccessful clinical trials and the fact that many tumors are resistant to TRAIL. In this report, we identified heparan sulfate (HS) as an important regulator of TRAIL-induced apoptosis. TRAIL binds HS with high affinity (KD = 73 nM) and HS induces TRAIL to form higher-order oligomers. The HS-binding site of TRAIL is located at the N-terminus of soluble TRAIL, which includes three basic residues. Binding to cell surface HS plays an essential role in promoting the apoptotic activity of TRAIL in both breast cancer and myeloma cells, and this promoting effect can be blocked by heparin, which is commonly administered to cancer patients. We also quantified HS content in several lines of myeloma cells and found that the cell line showing the most resistance to TRAIL has the least expression of HS, which suggests that HS expression in tumor cells could play a role in regulating sensitivity towards TRAIL. We also discovered that death receptor 5 (DR5), TRAIL, and HS can form a ternary complex and that cell surface HS plays an active role in promoting TRAIL-induced cellular internalization of DR5. Combined, our study suggests that TRAIL-HS interactions could play multiple roles in regulating the apoptotic potency of TRAIL and might be an important point of consideration when designing future TRAIL-based anti-tumor therapy.
    Keywords:  TNF; cell biology; death receptor; human; internalization; mouse; oligomerization; strand swapping
  3. Int J Biol Macromol. 2024 Jan 18. pii: S0141-8130(24)00302-7. [Epub ahead of print] 129499
      Chondroitin sulfate (CS) was extracted and purified from shark cartilage, and its interaction with bovine serum albumin (BSA) were studied. The content of chondroitin sulfate in shark cartilage was 29.97 % using the 1,9-dimethyl-methylene blue method. The molecular weight of CS was determined to be 62.464 kDa by high-performance gel permeation chromatography. UV and FT-IR spectroscopy identified the characteristics of CS and its functional group information. NMR spectroscopy and disaccharide derivatization revealed that CS was predominantly composed of disulfated disaccharides, specifically ΔDi4,6S. Fluorescence quenching experiments indicated that the interaction between CS and BSA exhibited static quenching, with a binding site number of 1. The binding process was primarily mediated by van der Waals forces and hydrogen bonds. Furthermore, synchronous and 3D fluorescence spectroscopy demonstrated that CS had minimal impact on the polarity and hydrophobicity of the microenvironment surrounding Tyr and Trp residues. UV-vis absorption and circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopy demonstrated the altered structure of BSA. The molecular docking analysis revealed that CS formed hydrogen bonds and salt bridges with BSA, predominantly binding to the IIA substructure domain of BSA. Investigating the interaction between CS and BSA holds the potential for enhancing its applications in drug delivery and tissue engineering endeavors.
    Keywords:  Bovine serum albumin; Chondroitin sulfate; Fluorescence quenching; Molecular docking
  4. Mar Drugs. 2023 Dec 21. pii: 9. [Epub ahead of print]22(1):
      Glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) with unique structures from marine animals show intriguing pharmacological activities and negligible biological risks, providing more options for us to explore safer agents. The swim bladder is a tonic food and folk medicine, and its GAGs show good anticoagulant activity. In this study, two GAGs, CMG-1.0 and GMG-1.0, were extracted and isolated from the swim bladder of Cynoscion microlepidotus and Gadus morhua. The physicochemical properties, precise structural characteristics, and anticoagulant activities of these GAGs were determined for the first time. The analysis results of the CMG-1.0 and GMG-1.0 showed that they were chondroitin sulfate (CS)/dermatan sulfate (DS) hybrid chains with molecular weights of 109.3 kDa and 123.1 kDa, respectively. They were mainly composed of the repeating disaccharide unit of -{IdoA-α1,3-GalNAc4S-β1,4-}- (DS-A). The DS-B disaccharide unit of -{IdoA2S-α1,3-GalNAc4S-β1,4-}- also existed in both CMG-1.0 and GMG-1.0. CMG-1.0 had a higher proportion of CS-O disaccharide unit -{-GlcA-β1,3-GalNAc-β1,4-}- but a lower proportion of CS-E disaccharide unit -{-GlcA-β1,3-GalNAc4S6S-β1,4-}- than GMG-1.0. The disaccharide compositions of the GAGs varied in a species-specific manner. Anticoagulant activity assay revealed that both CMG-1.0 and GMG-1.0 had potent anticoagulant activity, which can significantly prolong activated partial thromboplastin time. GMG-1.0 also can prolong the thrombin time. CMG-1.0 showed no intrinsic tenase inhibition activity, while GMG-1.0 can obviously inhibit intrinsic tenase with EC50 of 58 nM. Their significantly different anticoagulant activities may be due to their different disaccharide structural units and proportions. These findings suggested that swim bladder by-products of fish processing of these two marine organisms may be used as a source of anticoagulants.
    Keywords:  CS/DS hybrid chain; anticoagulant activity; glycosaminoglycan; structure; swim bladder
  5. Elife. 2024 Jan 24. pii: RP86663. [Epub ahead of print]12
      Dpp/BMP acts as a morphogen to provide positional information in the Drosophila wing disc. Key cell-surface molecules to control Dpp morphogen gradient formation and signaling are heparan sulfate proteoglycans (HSPGs). In the wing disc, two HSPGs, the glypicans Division abnormally delayed (Dally) and Dally-like (Dlp) have been suggested to act redundantly to control these processes through direct interaction of their heparan sulfate (HS) chains with Dpp. Based on this assumption, a number of models on how glypicans control Dpp gradient formation and signaling have been proposed, including facilitating or hindering Dpp spreading, stabilizing Dpp on the cell surface, or recycling Dpp. However, how distinct HSPGs act remains largely unknown. Here, we generate genome-engineering platforms for the two glypicans and find that only Dally is critical for Dpp gradient formation and signaling through interaction of its core protein with Dpp. We also find that this interaction is not sufficient and that the HS chains of Dally are essential for these functions largely without interacting with Dpp. We provide evidence that the HS chains of Dally are not essential for spreading or recycling of Dpp but for stabilizing Dpp on the cell surface by antagonizing receptor-mediated Dpp internalization. These results provide new insights into how distinct HSPGs control morphogen gradient formation and signaling during development.
    Keywords:  D. melanogaster; Dally; Dpp/BMP; cell biology; developmental biology; glypican; morphogen; wing disc
  6. Biomater Adv. 2024 Jan 18. pii: S2772-9508(24)00019-0. [Epub ahead of print]158 213776
      The design of tumor-targeting nanoparticles with precisely controlled physical-biological properties may improve the delivery of chemotherapeutic agents. This study introduces pH-sensitive chondroitin sulfate-cholesterol (ChS-Chol) nano-assemblies for targeted intracellular doxorubicin (Dox) delivery in breast cancer treatment. Various ChS-Chol copolymers were synthesized, yielding self-assembling nanostructures with adjustable lipophilic content. In an aqueous environment, the ChS-Chol conjugates could form self-assembled nanostructures with a narrower size variation and a high negative potential. Moreover, the carriers would rapidly disassemble and release Dox in response to acidic pH. The in vitro cytotoxicity assay exhibited concentration-related anti-proliferation activity with Dox-loaded nanoparticles against 4T1, MCF-7, and MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells. The nanoparticles demonstrated enhanced early apoptosis induction, efficient cellular uptake, and improved prevention of tumor cell proliferation compared to free Dox. In vivo results showcased significant tumor growth inhibition, underscoring the potential of these nanoparticle-based drug delivery systems for breast cancer therapy. The study emphasizes tailored nanocarrier design, leveraging pH-responsiveness and precise hydrophobic tuning to achieve targeted and potent therapeutic effects in the fight against breast cancer.
    Keywords:  CD44 targeting; Chondroitin sulfate; Hydrophobic content; Intracellular release; pH-sensitive
  7. Pediatr Pulmonol. 2024 Jan 25.
      BACKGROUND: Increase in body mass index (BMI) in early childhood (1-6 years) was found to be a contributing factor for impaired final height in boys with Cystic Fibrosis (CF). Early adrenarche (before age 9 years in boys) may contribute to an impaired final height by triggering an early acceleration of bone age resulting in a compromised growth spurt during puberty. We aimed to analyze the timing of adrenarche in boys with CF and to associate BMI increase in early childhood to timing of adrenarche.METHODS: Boys with CF, aged 8-9 years, visiting the CF expertize center Utrecht were included. Since 2018, anthropomorphic, pubertal and endocrine data were collected. Early adrenarche in boys was defined as a dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAS) ≥ 1 µmol/L before the age of 9 years.
    RESULTS: Thirteen boys (mean age 8.55 ± 0.27 years) were enrolled. The median (IQR) DHEAS-level was 1.3 µmol/L (0.71-2.40). Eight boys (61.5%) had an early rise in DHEAS-levels ≥ 1 µmol/L. Mean increase in BMI Z-score between 1 and 6 years of age (ΔBMI1-6 ) was -0.07 ± 0.86. A significant correlation was found between ΔBMI1-6 and DHEAS-levels at the age of 8-9 years (r = 0.624, p = 0.040). In five boys with early rise in DHEAS, accelerated bone age was found (average 1.55 ± 0.96 years).
    CONCLUSION: In this small cohort, 61.5% of boys with CF between 8 and 9 years had an early rise of DHEAS, which was correlated to ΔBMI1 -6 between 1 and 6 years. Early adrenarche may be caused by ΔBMI1 -6 .
    Keywords:  BMI increase; DHEAS; bone age; dehydroepiandrosterone Sulfate; early adrenarche
  8. Cells. 2024 Jan 19. pii: 190. [Epub ahead of print]13(2):
      The disruption of endothelial heparan sulfate (HS) is an early event in tumor cell metastasis across vascular barriers, and the reinforcement of endothelial HS reduces tumor cell adhesion to endothelium. Our recent study showed that while vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) greatly reduces HS at an in vitro blood-brain barrier (BBB) formed by human cerebral microvascular endothelial cells (hCMECs), it significantly enhances HS on a breast cancer cell, MDA-MB-231 (MB231). Here, we tested that this differential effect of VEGF on the HS favors MB231 adhesion and transmigration. We also tested if agents that enhance endothelial HS may affect the HS of MB231 and reduce its adhesion and transmigration. To test these hypotheses, we generated an in vitro BBB by culturing hCMECs on either a glass-bottom dish or a Transwell filter. We first quantified the HS of the BBB and MB231 after treatment with VEGF and endothelial HS-enhancing agents and then quantified the adhesion and transmigration of MB231 across the BBB after pretreatment with these agents. Our results demonstrated that the reduced/enhanced BBB HS and enhanced/reduced MB231 HS increase/decrease MB231 adhesion to and transmigration across the BBB. Our findings suggest a therapeutic intervention by targeting the HS-mediated breast cancer brain metastasis.
    Keywords:  MDA-MB-231; blood–brain barrier; glycocalyx; heparinase III; matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) inhibitor; orosomucoid; sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P); vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)
  9. Biosci Biotechnol Biochem. 2024 Jan 25. pii: zbae008. [Epub ahead of print]
      Organisms have conversion systems for sulfate ion to take advantage of the chemical features. The use of biologically converted sulfonucleotides varies in an evolutionary manner, with the universal use being that of sulfonate donors. Sulfotransferases have the ability to transfer the sulfonate group of 3'-phosphoadenosine 5'-phosphosulfate (PAPS) to a variety of molecules. Cytosolic sulfotransferases (SULTs) play a role in the metabolism of low-molecular-weight compounds in response to the host organism's living environment. This review will address the diverse functions of the SULT in evolution, including recent findings. In addition to the diversity of vertebrate sulfotransferases, the molecular aspects and recent studies on bacterial and plant sulfotransferases are also addressed.
    Keywords:  PAPS; SULT; bacteria; mammals; zebrafish
  10. Biomedicines. 2023 Dec 28. pii: 74. [Epub ahead of print]12(1):
      Bone defect repair poses significant challenges in orthopedics, thereby increasing the demand for bone substitutes. Magnesium phosphate cements (MPCs) are widely used for bone defect repair because of their excellent mechanical properties and biodegradability. However, high crystallinity and uncontrolled magnesium ion (Mg2+) release limit the surface bioactivity of MPCs in bone regeneration. Here, we fabricate chondroitin sulfate (CS) as a surface coating via the lyophilization method, namely CMPC. We find that the CS coating is uniformly distributed and improves the mechanical properties of MPC through anionic electrostatic adsorption, while mediating degradation-related controlled ion release of Mg2+. Using a combination of in vitro and in vivo analyses, we show that the CS coating maintained cytocompatibility while increasing the cell adhesion area of MC3T3-E1s. Furthermore, we display accelerated osteogenesis and angiogenesis of CMPC, which are related to appropriate ion concentration of Mg2+. Our findings reveal that the preparation of a lyophilized CS coating is an effective method to promote surface bioactivity and mediate Mg2+ concentration dependent osteogenesis and angiogenesis, which have great potential in bone regeneration.
    Keywords:  angiogenesis; chondroitin sulfate; k-struvite; magnesium phosphate cement; osteogenesis
  11. Bioinformation. 2023 ;19(12): 1116-1123
      Human alpha-L-iduronidase (IDUA) is a 653 amino acid protein involved in the sequential degradation of glycos-amino-glycans (GAG), heparan sulfate (HS), and dermatan sulfate (DS). Some variants in the IDUA gene produce a deficient enzyme that causes un-degraded DS and HS to accumulate in multiple tissues, leading to an organ dysfunction known as muco-poly-saccharidosis type I (MPS I). Molecular and catalytic activity assays of new or rare variants of IDUA do not predict the phenotype that a patient will develop. Therefore, it is of interest to describe the molecular docking analysis, to locate binding regions of DS to IDUA to better understand the effect of a variant on MPS I development. The results presented herein demonstrate the presence of a polar/acidic catalytic site and a basic region in the putative binding site of DS to IDUA. Further, synthetic substrate docking with the enzyme could help in the predictions of the MPS I phenotype.
    Keywords:  GAG; IDUA; MPS I; Molecular docking; dermatan sulfate tetrasaccharide; human alpha-L-iduronidase; structures
  12. Food Funct. 2024 Jan 25.
      Resveratrol, renowned as an antioxidant, also exhibits significant potential in combatting severe respiratory infections, particularly the respiratory syncytial virus (RSV). Nevertheless, the specific mechanism underlying its inhibition of RSV replication remains unexplored. Heparan sulfate proteoglycans (HSPGs) play a pivotal role as attachment factors for numerous viruses, offering a promising avenue for countering viral infections. Our research has unveiled that resveratrol effectively curbs RSV infection in a dose-dependent manner. Remarkably, resveratrol disrupts the early stages of RSV infection by engaging with HSPGs, rather than interacting with RSV surface proteins like fusion (F) protein and glycoprotein (G). Resveratrol's affinity appears to be predominantly directed towards the negatively charged sites on HSPGs, thus impeding the binding of viral receptors. In an in vivo study involving RSV-infected mice, resveratrol demonstrates its potential by ameliorating pulmonary pathology. This improvement is attributed to the inhibition of pro-inflammatory cytokine expression and a reduction in viral load within the lungs. Notably, resveratrol specifically alleviates inflammation characterized by an abundance of neutrophils in RSV-infected mice. In summation, our data first shows how resveratrol combats RSV infection through interactions with HSPGs, positioning it as a promising candidate for innovative drug development targeting RSV infections. Our study provides insight into the mechanism of resveratrol antiviral infection.
  13. Sci Immunol. 2024 Jan 26. 9(91): eade6924
      Mucosal-associated invariant T (MAIT) cells are innate-like T cells that recognize bacterial riboflavin-based metabolites as activating antigens. Although MAIT cells are found in tissues, it is unknown whether any host tissue-derived antigens exist. Here, we report that a sulfated bile acid, cholic acid 7-sulfate (CA7S), binds the nonclassical MHC class I protein MR1 and is recognized by MAIT cells. CA7S is a host-derived metabolite whose levels were reduced by more than 98% in germ-free mice. Deletion of the sulfotransferase 2a family of enzymes (Sult2a1-8) responsible for CA7S synthesis reduced the number of thymic MAIT cells in mice. Moreover, recognition of CA7S induced MAIT cell survival and the expression of a homeostatic gene signature. By contrast, recognition of a previously described foreign antigen, 5-(2-oxopropylideneamino)-6-d-ribitylaminouracil (5-OP-RU), drove MAIT cell proliferation and the expression of inflammatory genes. Thus, CA7S is an endogenous antigen for MAIT cells, which promotes their development and function.
  14. Front Plant Sci. 2023 ;14 1326964
      Phytosulfokines (PSKs) are a class of disulfated pentapeptides and are regarded as plant peptide hormones. PSK-α, -γ, -δ, and -ϵ are four bioactive PSKs that are reported to have roles in plant growth, development, and immunity. In this review, we summarize recent advances in PSK biosynthesis, signaling, and function. PSKs are encoded by precursor genes that are widespread in higher plants. PSKs maturation from these precursors requires a sulfation step, which is catalyzed by a tyrosylprotein sulfotransferase, as well as proteolytic cleavage by subtilisin serine proteases. PSK signaling is mediated by plasma membrane-localized receptors PSKRs that belong to the leucine-rich repeat receptor-like kinase family. Moreover, multiple biological functions can be attributed to PSKs, including promoting cell division and cell growth, regulating plant reproduction, inducing somatic embryogenesis, enhancing legume nodulation, and regulating plant resistance to biotic and abiotic stress. Finally, we propose several research directions in this field. This review provides important insights into PSKs that will facilitate biotechnological development and PSK application in agriculture.
    Keywords:  PSKR; cell division; cell growth; immunity; phytosulfokine; sulfated peptide
  15. Nanotechnology. 2024 Jan 23.
      Heparins are a family of sulfated linear negatively charged polysaccharides that have been widely used for their anticoagulant, antithrombotic, antitumor, anti-inflammatory, and antiviral properties. Additionally, it has been used for acute cerebral infarction relief as well as other pharmacological actions. However, heparins self-aggregated macrocomplex may reduce blood circulation time and induce life-threatening thrombocytopenia (HIT) complicating the use of heparins. Nonetheless, the conjugation of heparin to immuno-stealth biomolecules may overcome these obstacles. An immunostealth recombinant viral capsid protein (VP28) was expressed and conjugated with heparin to form a novel nanocomplex (VP28-heparin). VP28-heparin was characterized and tested to determine its immunogenicity, anticoagulation properties, effects on total platelet count, and risk of inducing HIT in animal models. The synthesized VP28-heparin trimeric nanocomplex was non-immunogenic, possessed an average hydrodynamic size (8.81 ± 0.58 nm) optimal for the evasion renal filtration and reticuloendothelial system uptake (hence prolonging circulating half-life). Additionally, VP28-heparin did not induce mouse death or reduce blood platelet count when administered at a high dose in vivo (hence reducing HIT risks). The VP28-heparin nanocomplex also exhibited superior anticoagulation properties (2.2x higher prothrombin time) and comparable activated partial thromboplastin time, but longer anticoagulation period when compared to unfractionated heparin (UFH). The anticoagulative effects of the VP28-heparin can also be reversed using protamine sulfate. Thus, VP28-heparin may be an effective and safe heparin derivative for therapeutic use.
    Keywords:  Heparin; Self-assembly of heparin; VP28 protein of white spot syndrome virus (WSSV); VP28-Heparin nanoparticle; activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT); heparin-induced thrombocytopenia (HIT)
  16. Biomedicines. 2024 Jan 22. pii: 241. [Epub ahead of print]12(1):
      BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Chemokines have various biological functions and potential roles in the development or progression of neuroinflammatory diseases. However, the specific pathogenic roles of chemokines in the major cause for vision loss among the elderly, the leading cause of blindness in older individuals, remain elusive. Chemokines interact with their receptors expressed in the endothelium and on leukocytes. The sulfation of tyrosine residues in chemokine receptors increases the strength of ligand-receptor interaction and modulates signaling. Therefore, in the present study, we aimed to construct a human recombinant sulfated CXCR3 peptide trap (hCXCR3-S2) and mouse recombinant sulfated CXCR3 peptide trap (mCXCR3-S2) to demonstrate in vivo effects in preventing choroidal neovascularization (CNV) and chemotaxis.MATERIALS AND METHODS: We generated expression vectors for mCXCR3-S2 and hCXCR3-S2 with GST domains and their respective cDNA sequences. Following overexpression in E. coli BL21 (DE3), we purified the fusion proteins from cell lysates using affinity chromatography. First, the impact of hCXCR3-S2 was validated in vitro. Subsequently, the in vivo efficacy of mCXCR3-S2 was investigated using a laser-induced CNV mouse model, a mouse model of neovascular age-related macular degeneration (AMD).
    RESULTS: hCXCR3-S2 inhibited the migration and invasion of two human cancer cell lines. Intravitreal injection of mCXCR3-S2 attenuated CNV and macrophage recruitment in neovascular lesions of mouse models. These in vitro and in vivo effects were significantly stronger with CXCR3-S2 than with wild-type CXCR3 peptides.
    CONCLUSION: These findings demonstrate that the sulfated form of the CXCR3 peptide trap is a valuable tool that could be supplemented with antivascular endothelial growth factors in AMD treatment.
    Keywords:  age-related macular degeneration; cell invasion; choroidal neovascularization; macrophage recruitment; recombinant sulfated CXCR3 peptide trap
  17. Mar Biotechnol (NY). 2024 Jan 26.
      Natural substances are strategic candidates for drug development in cancer research. Marine-derived molecules are of special interest due to their wide range of biological activities and sustainable large-scale production. Melanoma is a type of skin cancer that originates from genetic mutations in melanocytes. BRAF, RAS, and NF1 mutations are described as the major melanoma drivers, but approximately 20% of patients lack these mutations and are included in the triple wild-type (tripleWT) classification. Recent advances in targeted therapy directed at driver mutations along with immunotherapy have only partially improved patients' overall survival, and consequently, melanoma remains deadly when in advanced stages. Fucose-containing sulfated polysaccharides (FCSP) are potential candidates to treat melanoma; therefore, we investigated Fucan A, a FCSP from Spatoglossum schröederi brown seaweed, in vitro in human melanoma cell lines presenting different mutations. Up to 72 h Fucan A treatment was not cytotoxic either to normal melanocytes or melanoma cell lines. Interestingly, it was able to impair the tripleWT CHL-1 cell proliferation (57%), comparable to the chemotherapeutic cytotoxic drug cisplatin results, with the advantage of not causing cytotoxicity. Fucan A increased CHL-1 doubling time, an effect attributed to cell cycle arrest. Vascular mimicry, a close related angiogenesis process, was also impaired (73%). Fucan A mode of action could be related to gene expression modulation, in special β-catenin downregulation, a molecule with protagonist roles in important signaling pathways. Taken together, results indicate that Fucan A is a potential anticancer molecule and, therefore, deserves further investigation.
    Keywords:  Antitumoral effects; Fucose-rich sulfated polysaccharide; Melanoma; Spatoglossum schröederi
  18. Drug Metab Dispos. 2024 Jan 24. pii: DMD-AR-2023-001434. [Epub ahead of print]
      The hepatitis C virus (HCV) poses a great risk to pregnant people and their developing fetus, yet no HCV antiviral treatment guidelines have been established. While there has been a substantial increase in the development of HCV antivirals, the effect they have on the developing fetus remains poorly defined. Many of these drugs are metabolized through the cytochrome P450 CYP3A pathway, which is mediated by CYP3A7 in the fetus and developing infant. In this study, we sought to investigate the effect HCV antivirals have on CYP3A7 metabolism, as this CYP enzyme plays a vital role in proper fetal and neonatal development. Of the thirteen HCV antivirals we investigated, eight (~62%) inhibited CYP3A7 metabolic activity by 50% or more at a concentration of 20 µM. Furthermore, paritaprevir, asunaprevir, simeprevir, danoprevir, and glecaprevir all had observed half-maximal inhibitory concentrations between the range of 10-20 µM, which is physiologically relevant in comparison to the Km of DHEA-S oxidation (reported to be between 5 to 20 µM). We also discovered that paritaprevir is a time-dependent inhibitor of CYP3A7, which shifts the IC50 ~2-fold from 11 µM to 5 µM. Upon further characterization, paritaprevir inactivates DHEA-S metabolism by CYP3A7, with K-I and Kinact values of 4.66 µM and 0.00954 min-1, respectively. Depending on treatment plan and off-label drug use, HCV treatment could adversely affect the fetal-maternal communication axis by blocking fetal CYP3A7 metabolism of important endogenous hormones. Significance Statement The prevalence of HCV in pregnant people is estimated between 1-8% of the global population, yet little-to-no information exists about the risk antiviral treatment poses to the developing fetus. There is potential risk of drugs adversely affecting mother-fetal communication by inhibiting fetal hepatic CYP3A7, an integral enzyme for estriol production. We discovered that five HCV antivirals inhibited DHEA-S metabolism by CYP3A7, and paritaprevir inactivated the enzyme. Our studies demonstrate the potential threat these drugs pose to proper fetal development.
    Keywords:  CYP3A7; Cytochrome P450 (CYP); drug-drug interactions; drug-induced hepatotoxicity; hepatitis; inhibition