bims-supasi Biomed News
on Sulfation pathways and signalling
Issue of 2023‒01‒08
eleven papers selected by
Jonathan Wolf Mueller
University of Birmingham

  1. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2022 Dec 20. pii: S0006-291X(22)01717-X. [Epub ahead of print]642 185-191
      Salmon nasal cartilage proteoglycan (PG) was orally administered to mice. The PG digest was recovered from the small intestine, and its sugar chain size and unsaturated disaccharide content were examined. The elution position of the PG digest following Sepharose CL-4B chromatography was consistent with that of actinase-digested PG prior to administration. The PG digest was incubated with chondroitinase ABC, which resulted in the elution pattern of the unsaturated disaccharides being identical to that of the degraded product of actinase-digested PG. The core protein of PG was digested in the mouse small intestine, but chondroitin sulfate, which is the sugar chain of PG, was not degraded at all. Then, the effects of chondroitin 4- and 6-sulfates on human colon cancer cells were examined. These chondroitin sulfates were found to suppress the expression of interleukin-6 induced by TNF-α. Overall, the chondroitin sulfate chain may act on the intestinal epithelium and suppress inflammation of the intestinal tract.
    Keywords:  Chondroitin sulfate; Cytokines; Inflammation; Proteoglycan; Small intestine
  2. Nat Chem Biol. 2023 Jan 02.
      Heparan sulfate (HS) proteoglycans are extended (-GlcAβ1,4GlcNAcα1,4-)n co-polymers containing decorations of sulfation and epimerization that are linked to cell surface and extracellular matrix proteins. In mammals, HS repeat units are extended by an obligate heterocomplex of two exostosin family members, EXT1 and EXT2, where each protein monomer contains distinct GT47 (GT-B fold) and GT64 (GT-A fold) glycosyltransferase domains. In this study, we generated human EXT1-EXT2 (EXT1-2) as a functional heterocomplex and determined its structure in the presence of bound donor and acceptor substrates. Structural data and enzyme activity of catalytic site mutants demonstrate that only two of the four glycosyltransferase domains are major contributors to co-polymer syntheses: the EXT1 GT-B fold β1,4GlcA transferase domain and the EXT2 GT-A fold α1,4GlcNAc transferase domain. The two catalytic sites are over 90 Å apart, indicating that HS is synthesized by a dissociative process that involves a single catalytic site on each monomer.
  3. J Chromatogr A. 2022 Dec 23. pii: S0021-9673(22)00939-6. [Epub ahead of print]1689 463748
      Glycosaminoglycans (GAGs), which are one of the major components of proteoglycans, play a pivotal role in physiological processes such as signal transduction, cell adhesion, growth, and differentiation. Characterization of GAGs is challenging due to the tremendous structural diversity of heteropolysaccharides with numerous sulfate or carboxyl groups. In this present study, we examined the analysis of 2-aminobenzamide (2-AB) labeled GAG disaccharides by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) using a reverse-phase (RP)-column with adamantyl groups. Under the analytical conditions, 17 types of 2-AB labeled GAG disaccharides derived from heparan sulfate, chondroitin/dermatan sulfates, and hyaluronan were sequentially separated in a single analysis. The analysis time was fast with high retention time reproducibility. Moreover, the RP-HPLC column with adamantyl groups allowed the quantification of GAGs in various biological samples, such as serum, cultured cells, and culture medium.
    Keywords:  Adamantly group; RP-HPLC; chondroitin/dermatan sulfate detection; heparan sulfate detection; Δ-Disaccharide GAG analysis
  4. Front Bioeng Biotechnol. 2022 ;10 1058355
      Articular cartilage is an avascular tissue that lines the ends of bones in diarthrodial joints, serves as support, acts as a shock absorber, and facilitates joint's motion. It is formed by chondrocytes immersed in a dense extracellular matrix (principally composed of aggrecan linked to hyaluronic acid long chains). Damage to this tissue is usually associated with traumatic injuries or age-associated processes that often lead to discomfort, pain and disability in our aging society. Currently, there are few surgical alternatives to treat cartilage damage: the most commonly used is the microfracture procedure, but others include limited grafting or alternative chondrocyte implantation techniques, however, none of them completely restore a fully functional cartilage. Here we present the development of hydrogels based on hyaluronic acid and chitosan loaded with chondroitin sulfate by a new strategy of synthesis using biodegradable di-isocyanates to obtain an interpenetrated network of chitosan and hyaluronic acid for cartilage repair. These scaffolds act as delivery systems for the chondroitin sulfate and present mucoadhesive properties, which stabilizes the clot of microfracture procedures and promotes superficial chondrocyte differentiation favoring a true articular cellular colonization of the cartilage. This double feature potentially improves the microfracture technique and it will allow the development of next-generation therapies against articular cartilage damage.
    Keywords:  cartilage regeneration; chitosan; chondroitin sulfate; diisocyanate; hyaluronic acid; hydrogel; microfracture
  5. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2022 Dec 29. pii: S0006-291X(22)01760-0. [Epub ahead of print]643 105-110
      The 3'-phosphoadenosine-5'-phosphosulfate (PAPS) molecule is essential during enzyme-catalyzed sulfation reactions as a sulfate donor and is an intermediate in the reduction of sulfate to sulfite in the sulfur assimilation pathway. PAPS is produced through a two-step reaction involving ATP sulfurylase and adenosine 5'-phosphosulfate (APS) kinase enzymes/domains. However, archaeal APS kinases have not yet been characterized and their mechanism of action remains unclear. Here, we first structurally characterized APS kinase from the hyperthermophilic archaeon Archaeoglobus fulgidus, (AfAPSK). We demonstrated the PAPS production activity of AfAPSK at the optimal growth temperature (83 °C). Furthermore, we determined the two crystal structures of AfAPSK: ADP complex and ATP analog adenylyl-imidodiphosphate (AMP-PNP)/Mg2+/APS complex. Structural and complementary mutational analyses revealed the catalytic and substrate recognition mechanisms of AfAPSK. This study also hints at the molecular basis behind the thermal stability of AfAPSK.
  6. Heliyon. 2022 Dec;8(12): e12220
      Introduction: Indoxyl sulfate (IS), a protein-bound uremic toxin, is associated with kidney function and chronic kidney disease (CKD)-related complications. Currently, serum IS levels are primarily quantified using mass spectrometry-based methods, which are not feasible for routine clinical examinations.Methods: The efficiencies of three commercial ELISA kits in determination of serum IS were validated by comparing with ultra-performance liquid chromatography (UPLC)-MS/MS-based method using Bland-Altman analysis. The associations between kidney parameters and serum IS levels determined by ELISA kit from Leadgene and UPLC-MS/MS were evaluated by Spearman correlation coefficient in a CKD validation cohort.
    Results: ELISA kit from Leadgene showed clinical agreement with UPLC-MS/MS in the determination of serum IS levels (p = 0.084). In patients with CKD, Spearman's correlation analysis revealed a perfect correlation between the IS levels determined using the Leadgene ELISA kit and UPLC-MS/MS (r = 0.964, p < 0.0001). IS levels determined using the Leadgene ELISA kit were associated with the estimated glomerular filtration rate (r = -0.772, p < 0.0001) and serum creatinine concentration (r = 0.824, p < 0.0001) in patients with CKD, and on dialysis (r = 0.557, p = 0.006).
    Conclusions: The Leadgene ELISA kit exhibits comparable efficacy to UPLC-MS/MS in quantifying serum IS levels, supporting that ELISA would be a personalized method for monitoring the dynamic changes in serum IS levels in dialysis patients to prevent the progression of CKD.
    Keywords:  Chronic kidney disease; ELISA; Indoxyl sulfate; UPLC-MS/MS
  7. J Hepatocell Carcinoma. 2022 ;9 1369-1383
      Purpose: Sulfatase 2 (SULF2) is an enzyme related to heparan sulfate modifications. Its expression, as for some heparan sulfate proteoglycans expression, has been linked to hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) at mRNA level and immunohistochemistry staining on biopsy samples. This study aims to evaluate the prognostic value of serum levels of SULF2 in patients with alcoholic cirrhosis with or without HCC.Patients and Methods: Two hundred and eighty-seven patients with alcoholic cirrhosis were enrolled in this study: 164 without HCC, 57 with early HCC, and 66 with advanced HCC at inclusion. We analyzed the association between SULF2 serum levels and prognosis using Kaplan-Meier method and univariate and multivariate analysis using a Cox model.
    Results: Child-Pugh C Patients have higher serum levels of SULF2 than Child-Pugh A patients. Serum levels of SULF2 were also higher in patients with advanced HCC compared with the other groups. In patients with advanced HCC, high serum levels of SULF2 were associated with less favorable overall survival. Combination of SULF2 with Glypican 3 (GPC3) and Syndecan 1 (SDC1) serum levels enhanced the ability to discriminate worst prognostic in advanced HCC.
    Conclusion: SULF2 along with GPC3 and SDC1 serum levels have been shown to be associated with a prognostic value in advanced HCC.
    Keywords:  cirrhosis; hepatocellular carcinoma; prognosis; proteoglycans; sulfatase 2
  8. Talanta. 2022 Dec 28. pii: S0039-9140(22)01014-1. [Epub ahead of print]255 124218
      Anti-doping rule violations related to the abuse of endogenous anabolic androgenic steroids can be currently discovered by the urinary steroidal module of Athlete Biological Passport. Since this powerful tool is still subjected to some limitations due to various confounding factors altering the steroid profile, alternative strategies have been constantly proposed. Among these, the measurement of blood concentrations of endogenous steroid hormones by LC-MS is currently of increasing interest in anti-doping, bringing significant advantages for the detection of testosterone abuse in females and in individuals with deletion of UGT2B17 enzyme. Although various research groups have made significant efforts in method development, there is currently no accepted or harmonized anti-doping method for quantitative analysis of the various testosterone doping markers in blood. In this study we present a UHPLC-MS/MS method for the quantification of major circulating steroid hormones together with an extended panel of glucuro- and sulpho-conjugated phase II metabolites of androgens. Chromatographic setup was optimized by comparing the performance of three different C18 stationary phases and by the careful selection of mobile phases with the aim of separating all the target steroids, including numerous isomeric/isobaric compounds. MS parameters were fine-tuned to obtain the sensitivity needed for measuring the target analytes, that show specific serum concentrations ranging from low pg/mL for less abundant compounds to μg/mL for sulpho-conjugated steroids. Finally, sample preparation protocol was developed for the extraction of steroid hormones from 200 μL of serum and the performance was evaluated in terms of extraction recovery and matrix effect. The final method was then applied to authentic serum samples collected from healthy volunteers (40 males and 40 females) at the Blood Bank of the City of Health and Science University Hospital of Turin. The analysis of these samples allowed to obtain results on serum concentrations of the targeted steroids, with particular emphasis on previously undiscovered phase II metabolites, such as the isomers of 5-androstane-3,17-diol glucuronide. This preliminary application also enabled measuring dihydrotestosterone sulphate in male samples, efficiently separating this analyte from its isomer, epiandrosterone sulphate, which circulates in blood at high concentrations. The promising results of this study are encouraging for the measurement of blood steroid profile markers in serum and plasma samples for Athlete Biological Passport purposes.
    Keywords:  Androgens; Athlete biological passport; Doping; Serum; Steroids; UHPLC-MS/MS
  9. Cell Signal. 2022 Dec 31. pii: S0898-6568(22)00345-X. [Epub ahead of print] 110583
      Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a global health condition characterized by a progressive deterioration of kidney function. It is associated with high serum levels of uremic toxins (UT), such as Indoxyl Sulfate (IS), which may participate in the genesis of several uremic complications. Anemia is one of the major complications in CKD patients that contribute to cardiovascular disease, increase morbi-mortality, and is associated with a deterioration of kidney failure in these patients. Our study aimed to characterize the impact of IS on CKD-related erythropoiesis. Using cellular and pre-clinical models, we studied cellular and molecular effects of IS on the growth and differentiation of erythroid cells. First, we examined the effect of clinically relevant concentrations of IS (up to 250 μM) in the UT7/EPO cell line. IS at 250 μM increased apoptosis of UT7/EPO cells at 48 h compared to the control condition. We confirmed this apoptotic effect of IS in erythropoiesis in human primary CD34+ cells during the later stages of erythropoiesis. Then, in IS-treated human primary CD34+ cells and in a (5/6 Nx) mice model, a blockage at the burst-forming unit-erythroid (BFU-E) stage of erythropoiesis was also observed. Finally, IS deregulates a number of erythropoietic related genes such as GATA-1, Erythropoietin-Receptor (EPO-R), and β-globin. Our findings suggest that IS could affect cell viability and differentiation of erythroid progenitors by altering erythropoiesis and contributing to the development of anemia in CKD.
    Keywords:  Apoptosis; Chronic kidney disease; Erythroid progenitors; Erythropoiesis; Indoxyl sulfate; anemia
  10. Int J Biol Macromol. 2022 Dec 29. pii: S0141-8130(22)03228-7. [Epub ahead of print]
      Fucoidan is a highly sulfated polysaccharide with a wide range of bioactivities, including anti-pathogenic activity. However, the relationship between structure and activity of fucoidan in inhibiting pathogen infections remains unclear. Here, different-molecular-weight fucoidans were prepared by photocatalytic degradation followed by membrane ultrafiltration, and their chemical structures and anti-pathogenic microbiota activity were compared. Results showed that photocatalytic degradation could effectively degrade fucoidan while its structure block and sulfate groups were not destroyed obviously. Fucoidan (90.8 kDa) of 5 mg/mL could inhibit the growth of S. aureus, S. typhimurium and E. coli, but its degradation products, Dfuc1 (19.2 kDa) and Dfuc2 (5.5 kDa), demonstrated lower inhibitory effect. In addition, compared to Dfuc1 and Dfuc2, fucoidan showed stronger capability to prevent the adhesion of S. aureus, L. monocytogenes, V. parahaemolyticus and S. typhimurium to HT-29 cells. Moreover, the inhibitory effect against SARS-CoV-2 and the binding activity to S protein were also positively correlated to molecular weight. These results indicate that natural fucoidan with higher molecular weight are more effective to inhibit these pathogenic bacteria and SARS-CoV-2, providing a better understanding of the relationship between structure and activity of fucoidan against pathogenic microbiota.
    Keywords:  Foodborne pathogen; Photocatalytic degradation; Sulfated polysaccharide; Virus
  11. Int J Biol Macromol. 2023 Jan 02. pii: S0141-8130(22)03272-X. [Epub ahead of print] 123125
      The purpose of this study was to construct a transmembrane peptide-chondroitin sulphate‑gold nanoparticle (TAT-CS@Au) delivery system and investigate its activity as an anti-Alzheimer's disease (AD) drug. We successfully prepared TAT-CS@Au nanoparticles, investigated their anti-AD effects, and explored the possible mechanisms in in vitro models. TAT-CS@Au exhibited excellent cellular uptake and transport capacity, effectively inhibited the accumulation of Aβ1-40, and significantly reduced Aβ1-40-induced apoptosis in SH-SY5Y cells. Furthermore, TAT-CS@Au significantly reduced oxidative stress damage and cholinergic injury induced by Aβ1-40 by regulating intracellular concentrations of reactive oxygen species (ROS), malondialdehyde (MDA), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), and acetylcholine (ACh). Western blotting results demonstrated that TAT-CS@Au inhibited aberrant tau phosphorylation (Ser199, Thr205, Ser404, and Ser396) through GSK3β inactivation. TAT-CS@Au decreased the levels of inflammatory factors, specifically TNF-α, IL-6, and IL-1β, by inhibiting NF-κB nuclear translocation by activating MAPK signalling pathways. Overall, these results indicate that TAT-CS@Au exhibits excellent transmembrane ability, inhibits Aβ1-40 accumulation, antagonises oxidative stress, reduces aberrant tau phosphorylation, and suppresses the expression of inflammatory factors. TAT-CS@Au may be a multi-target anti-AD drug with good cell permeability, providing new insights into the design and research of anti-AD therapeutics.
    Keywords:  Alzheimer's disease; Chondroitin sulphate; Gold nanoparticle; Inflammatory factors; Tau protein; Transmembrane peptide