bims-supasi Biomed News
on Sulfation pathways and signalling
Issue of 2022‒03‒13
eight papers selected by
Jonathan Wolf Mueller
University of Birmingham

  1. J Asian Nat Prod Res. 2022 Mar 07. 1-10
      This study aimed to identify human cytosolic sulfotransferases (SULTs) that are capable of mediating hyperoside sulfation and examine the impact of genetic polymorphisms on their sulfating activity. Of the thirteen known human SULTs analyzed, five (1A1, 1A2, 1A3, 1C2, and 1C4) displayed sulfating activity toward hyperoside. Kinetic parameters of SULT1C4 that showed the strongest sulfating activity were determined. Ten SULT1C4 allozymes previously prepared were shown to display differential sulfating activities toward hyperoside, revealing clearly the functional impact of SULT1C4 genetic polymorphisms. These findings provided a robust biochemical foundation for further studies on the metabolism of hyperoside by sulfation.
    Keywords:  Hyperoside; SNP; SULT; cytosolic sulfotransferase; single nucleotide polymorphiosm; sulfation
  2. Arch Endocrinol Metab. 2022 Mar 08. pii: 2359-3997000000438. [Epub ahead of print]66(1): 77-87
      Adrenal steroid biosynthesis and its related pathology are constant evolving disciplines. In this paper, we review classic and current concepts of adrenal steroidogenesis, plus control mechanisms of steroid pathways, distribution of unique enzymes and cofactors, and major steroid families. We highlight the presence of a "mineralocorticoid (MC) pathway of zona fasciculata (ZF)", where most circulating corticosterone and deoxycorticosterone (DOC) originate together with 18OHDOC, under ACTH control, a claim based on functional studies in normal subjects and in patients with 11β-, and 17α-hydroxylase deficiencies. We emphasize key differences between CYP11B1 (11β-hydroxylase) and CYP11B2 (aldosterone synthase) and the onset of a hybrid enzyme - CYP11B1/CYP11B2 -, responsible for aldosterone formation in ZF under ACTH control, in "type I familial hyperaldosteronism" (dexamethasone suppressible). In "apparent MC excess syndrome", peripheral conversion of cortisol to cortisone is impaired by lack of 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 2, permitting free cortisol access to MC receptors resulting in severe hypertension. We discuss two novel conditions involving the synthesis of adrenal androgens: the "backdoor pathway", through which dihydrotestosterone is formed directly from androsterone, being relevant for the fetoplacental setting and sexual differentiation of male fetuses, and the rediscovery of C19 11-oxygenated steroids (11-hydroxyandrostenedione and 11-ketotestosterone), active androgens and important markers of virilization in 21-hydroxylase deficiency and polycystic ovaries syndrome. Finally, we underline two enzyme cofactor deficiencies: cytochrome P450 oxidoreductase which partially affects 21- and 17α-hydroxylation, producing a combined clinical/hormonal picture and causing typical skeletal malformations (Antley-Bixler syndrome), and PAPSS2, coupled to SULT2A1, that promotes sulfation of DHEA to DHEAS, preventing active androgens to accumulate. Its deficiency results in reduced DHEAS and elevated DHEA and androgens with virilization. Future and necessary studies will shed light on remaining issues and questions on adrenal steroidogenesis.
    Keywords:  11-oxigenated androgens; Steroidogenesis; adrenal cortex; adrenal disorders; adrenocortical enzymes; backdoor pathway; congenital adrenal hyperplasia; glucocorticoids; mineralocorticoids; sex steroids
  3. J Sep Sci. 2022 Mar 05.
      Indoxyl sulfate and 3-carboxy-4-methyl-5-propyl-2-furanpropanoic acid are uremic toxins that accumulate in renal failure and have been reported to decrease the activities of the drug-metabolizing enzyme cytochrome P450 3A and the drug transporter organic anion transporting polypeptides 1B, respectively. In this study, we established and validated an assay for simultaneous quantification of indoxyl sulfate and 3-carboxy-4-methyl-5-propyl-2-furanpropanoic acid in human plasma. The samples were pretreated by solid-phase extraction, and measured by ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. The validation results for this assay were within the acceptable limits recommended by the US Food and Drug Administration, with a lower limit of quantitation of 0.05 μg/mL for both indoxyl sulfate and 3-carboxy-4-methyl-5-propyl-2-furanpropanoic acid. Recovery rates of indoxyl sulfate and 3-carboxy-4-methyl-5-propyl-2-furanpropanoic acid corrected by internal standard were 100.7-101.9 and 100.2-101.3%, respectively. Matrix effects of indoxyl sulfate and 3-carboxy-4-methyl-5-propyl-2-furanpropanoic acid corrected by internal standard were 101.1-105.5 and 97.0-103.8%, respectively. The validated assay was used to analyze indoxyl sulfate and 3-carboxy-4-methyl-5-propyl-2-furanpropanoic acid concentrations in the plasma samples of healthy volunteers and patients with chronic kidney disease. All the measured plasma indoxyl sulfate and 3-carboxy-4-methyl-5-propyl-2-furanpropanoic acid concentrations were within the calibration ranges. This novel method may contribute to predicting the activities of drug-metabolizing enzymes and drug transporters in individual patients.
    Keywords:  chronic kidney disease; cytochrome P450 3A; drug transporter; indoxyl sulfate; mass spectrometry
  4. Mol Cell. 2022 Mar 03. pii: S1097-2765(22)00155-1. [Epub ahead of print]
      Cholesterol molecules specifically bind to the resting αβTCR to inhibit cytoplasmic CD3ζ ITAM phosphorylation through sequestering the TCR-CD3 complex in an inactive conformation. The mechanisms of cholesterol-mediated inhibition of TCR-CD3 and its activation remain unclear. Here, we present cryoelectron microscopy structures of cholesterol- and cholesterol sulfate (CS)-inhibited TCR-CD3 complexes and an auto-active TCR-CD3 variant. The structures reveal that cholesterol molecules act like a latch to lock CD3ζ into an inactive conformation in the membrane. Mutations impairing binding of cholesterol molecules to the tunnel result in the movement of the proximal C terminus of the CD3ζ transmembrane helix, thereby activating the TCR-CD3 complex in human cells. Together, our data reveal the structural basis of TCR inhibition by cholesterol, illustrate how the cholesterol-binding tunnel is allosterically coupled to TCR triggering, and lay a foundation for the development of immunotherapies through directly targeting the TCR-CD3 complex.
    Keywords:  TCR-CD3; auto-active; cholesterol; cholesterol sulfate; cholesterol-binding tunnel
  5. Zoo Biol. 2022 Mar 07.
      Monitoring wildlife stress levels is essential to ensure their quality of life in captivity or in the wild. One promising method to assess the stress response is the comeasurement of glucocorticoids (GC) and dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAS), adrenal hormones involved in the modulation of the stress response. Although noninvasive methods to measure GCs have been validated in several species, only a few studies have validated DHEAS assays. The aims of this study were (1) to describe an enzyme immunoassay (EIA) to measure DHEAS levels, (2) to validate this assay for fecal samples in gibbons and siamangs, and (3) to test hormonal stability after one freeze-thaw cycle and over time at two freezer temperatures (-20°C and -80°C). Subjects included 32 gibbons and siamangs from U.S. zoological parks. The EIA was validated analytically by parallelism and accuracy tests, and biologically by confirming a DHEAS response 1-2 days after a stressful event (accident, vaccination, or transportation) in three individuals. In addition, fecal DHEAS levels in a pregnant female were above nonpregnant/nonlactating levels and declined progressively the following parturition. The hormonal stability experiments revealed no significant changes in fecal DHEAS levels after one freeze-thaw cycle. Hormonal levels in fecal extracts were stable for 2 months, regardless of the storage temperature, with no significant differences between -20°C and -80°C conditions. The EIA described has high sensitivity and it is suitable for fecal DHEAS measurement in gibbons and siamangs, with a potential to be applied to other species.
    Keywords:  DHEAS; adrenal steroids; gibbons; noninvasive endocrinology; siamangs
  6. Sci Total Environ. 2022 Mar 08. pii: S0048-9697(22)01565-0. [Epub ahead of print] 154472
      Sulfated glycosaminoglycans (sGAG) are negatively charged extracellular polymeric substances that occur in biofilms from various environments. Yet, it remains unclear whether these polymers are acquired from the external environment or produced by microbes in the biofilm. To resolve this, we analyzed the presence of sGAGs in samples of an acidophilic biofilm collected from Sulfur Cave in Puturosu Mountain (Romania), an environment that is largely inaccessible to contamination. A maximum of 55.16 ± 2.06 μg sGAG-like polymers were recovered per mg of EPS. Enzymatic treatment with chondroitinase ABC resulted in a decrease of the mass of the polymers, suggesting the structure of the recovered sGAG is similar to chondroitin. Subsequent FT-IR analysis of these polymers revealed absorbance bands at 1212 cm-1, 1167 cm-1 and 900 cm-1, indicating a possible presence of polysaccharides and sulfate. Analysis of genomic sequences closely related to those predominant in the acidophilic biofilm, contained genes coding for sulfotransferase (an enzyme needed for the production of sGAG), which supports the hypothesis of microbial synthesis of sGAGs within the biofilm.
    Keywords:  EPS; Extremophiles; Romania; Sulfur Cave
  7. Nutrients. 2022 Jan 18. pii: 424. [Epub ahead of print]14(3):
      Gut dysbiosis, alongside a high-fat diet and cigarette smoking, is considered one of the factors promoting coronary arterial disease (CAD) development. The present study aimed to research whether gut dysbiosis can increase bacterial metabolites concentration in the blood of CAD patients and what impact these metabolites can exert on endothelial cells. The gut microbiomes of 15 age-matched CAD patients and healthy controls were analyzed by 16S rRNA sequencing analysis. The in vitro impact of LPS and indoxyl sulfate at concentrations present in patients' sera on endothelial cells was investigated. 16S rRNA sequencing analysis revealed gut dysbiosis in CAD patients, further confirmed by elevated LPS and indoxyl sulfate levels in patients' sera. CAD was associated with depletion of Bacteroidetes and Alistipes. LPS and indoxyl sulfate demonstrated co-toxicity to endothelial cells inducing reactive oxygen species, E-selectin, and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) production. Moreover, both of these metabolites promoted thrombogenicity of endothelial cells confirmed by monocyte adherence. The co-toxicity of LPS and indoxyl sulfate was associated with harmful effects on endothelial cells, strongly suggesting that gut dysbiosis-associated increased intestinal permeability can initiate or promote endothelial inflammation and atherosclerosis progression.
    Keywords:  Bacteroidetes; LPS; coronary artery disease; dysbiosis; gut microbiome; indoxyl sulfate; obesity
  8. Clin Appl Thromb Hemost. 2022 Jan-Dec;28:28 10760296221083667
      DOAC Dipstick determines specifically the presence and absence of direct oral anticoagulants (DOACs) from patients' urine samples and handmade test strips performed as well as the commercial version. To compare plasma activity (chromogenic substrate assays) from plasma samples with results from urine samples (DOAC test strips) of patients treated with heparin, low-molecular weight heparin (LMWH) and without anticoagulation. Plasma anti-factor Xa (aXa) activity was determined by Coamatic chromogenic substrate assay and compared to the presence of anticoagulants in urine by DOAC test strips. Patients were treated for least 5 days and samples were taken 4 hrs after administration in comparison to no treatment with an anticoagulant (n = 42). A total of 100 patients were included treated with heparin (n = 29), LMWH nadroparin (n = 29) or no anticoagulants (n = 42). Plasma aXa levels of patients treated with heparin (2 × 7.500 IU daily subcutaneously, 12 male, age 67.4 ± 11.5 years) were 0,18 IU/ml ± 0,15 IU/ml (mean, standard deviation), with LMWH (1 × 3000 IU daily subcutaneously, 15 male, age 64.2 ± 14.1 years) 0,17 IU/ml ± 0,16 IU/l, and with no anticoagulants (28 male, age 64.2 ± 15.6 years) 0,02 IU/ml ± 0.01 IU/ml. All factor Xa and thrombin inhibitor pad results of test strips were negative. We conclude that DOAC Dipstick has a high probability of not detecting heparin and LMWH in patients on treatment as well as in urine samples of patients not treated with an anticoagulant.
    Keywords:  DOAC dipstick; anti-factor xa activity; heparin; low-molecular weight heparin; point-of-care test