bims-supasi Biomed News
on Sulfation pathways and signalling
Issue of 2022‒02‒13
ten papers selected by
Jonathan Wolf Mueller
University of Birmingham

  1. Front Microbiol. 2021 ;12 775124
      Chondroitin sulfate (CS)/dermatan sulfate (DS) is a kind of sulfated polyanionic, linear polysaccharide belonging to glycosaminoglycan. CS/DS sulfatases, which specifically hydrolyze sulfate groups from CS/DS oligo-/polysaccharides, are potential tools for structural and functional studies of CD/DS. However, only a few sulfatases have been reported and characterized in detail to date. In this study, two CS/DS sulfatases, PB_3262 and PB_3285, were identified from the marine bacterium Photobacterium sp. QA16 and their action patterns were studied in detail. PB_3262 was characterized as a novel 4-O-endosulfatase that can effectively and specifically hydrolyze the 4-O-sulfate group of disaccharide GlcUAβ1-3GalNAc(4-O-sulfate) but not GlcUAβ1-3GalNAc(4,6-O-sulfate) and IdoUAα1-3GalNAc(4-O-sulfate) in CS/DS oligo-/polysaccharides, which is very different from the identified 4-O-endosulfatases in the substrate profile. In contrast, PB_3285 specifically hydrolyzes the 6-O-sulfate groups of GalNAc(6-O-sulfate) residues located at the reducing ends of the CS chains and is the first recombinantly expressed 6-O-exosulfatase to effectively act on CS oligosaccharides.
    Keywords:  chondroitin sulfate/dermatan sulfate; glycosaminoglycan; marine bacterium; substrate-degrading pattern; sulfatase
  2. Carbohydr Res. 2022 Jan 31. pii: S0008-6215(22)00015-5. [Epub ahead of print]512 108514
      The chemoselective N-trifluoroacetylation of a chondroitin disaccharide obtained from controlled acid hydrolysis of a commercially available polymeric chondroitin sulfate is reported for the first time. We also described the multi-gram scale synthesis of a donor block having a benzylidene moiety further used for the expeditious and stereocontrolled synthesis of glycosides fitted with various aglycons. Stereocontrolled β-glycosylation, sulfation and efficient N-TFA deprotection steps afforded the desired disaccharides in good yields.
    Keywords:  Chemoselective protection; Chondroitin sulfates; Disaccharides; Glycosylation; Hemisynthesis; Trifluoroacetylation
  3. Glycobiology. 2022 Feb 07. pii: cwac004. [Epub ahead of print]
      NDST1 (glucosaminyl N-deacetylase/N-sulfotransferase) is a key enzyme in heparan sulfate (HS) biosynthesis where it is responsible for HS N-deacetylation and N-sulfation. In addition to the fullength human enzyme of 882 amino acids, here designated NDST1A, a shorter form containing 825 amino acids (NDST1B) is synthesized after alternative splicing of the NDST1 mRNA. NDST1B is mostly expressed at a low level, but increased amounts are seen in several types of cancer where it is associated with shorter survival. In this study we aimed at characterizing the enzymatic properties of NDST1B and its effect on HS biosynthesis. Purified recombinant NDST1B lacked both N-deacetylase and N-sulfotransferase activities. Interestingly, HEK293 cells overexpressing NDST1B synthesized HS with reduced sulfation and altered domain structure. FRET-microscopy demonstrated that both NDST1A and NDST1B had the capacity to interact with the HS co-polymerase subunits EXT1 and EXT2 and also to form NDST1A/NDST1B dimers. Since lysates from cells overexpressing NDST1B contained less NDST enzyme activity than control cells, we suggest that NDST1B works in a dominant negative manner, tentatively by replacing the active endogenous NDST1 in the enzyme complexes taking part in biosynthesis.
    Keywords:  Alternative splicing; Golgi enzyme; Heparan sulfate biosynthesis; NDST
  4. Steroids. 2022 Feb 02. pii: S0039-128X(22)00008-3. [Epub ahead of print]179 108970
      Although DHEA sulfate (DS) is the most abundant steroid in the circulation, breast fluid contains an approximately 80-fold greater concentration than serum. Transport of DS into cells requires organic anion transporting polypeptides (OATPs), which are specific for cell type, cell location, and substrate, but may have a broader specificity for housekeeping functions. Specific classes, which may be modified by soluble factors including neutral steroids, have been identified in the breast. After transport, DS may be cleaved to DHEA by ubiquitous sulfatases, which may be modified by the cell milieu, or DHEA may enter by diffusion. Synthesis from cholesterol does not occur because CYP17B12 and cytochrome b5 are lacking in breast tissues. Case-control studies reveal a positive association of serum DS with risk of breast cancer. The association is even greater with DHEA, particularly in postmenopausal women with HR + invasive tumors. Metabolites of DHEA, androstenedione and testosterone, are associated with breast cancer but DHEA is likely to have an independent role as well. Mechanisms by which DHEA may promote breast cancer relate to its effect in increasing circulating IGF-I, by inhibiting the suppressive effect of glucocorticoids, and by promoting retention of pre-adipocytes with aromatase activity. In addition, DHEA may interact with the G-protein coupled receptor GPER for stimulation of miR-21 and subsequent activation of the MAPK pathway. DHEA also has antitumor properties that relate to stimulation of immunity, suppression of inflammation, and elevation of adipose tissue adiponectin synthesis. The net effect may depend on the which factors predominate.
    Keywords:  Androstenedione; Bioactivity; Breast cancer; Cytokines; DHEA sulfate; IGF-I; Immune system; Testosterone; dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA); organic anion transporting peptides (OATPs)
  5. Front Mol Biosci. 2021 ;8 763795
      Plants possess the most highly compartmentalized eukaryotic cells. To coordinate their intracellular functions, plastids and the mitochondria are dependent on the flow of information to and from the nuclei, known as retrograde and anterograde signals. One mobile retrograde signaling molecule is the monophosphate 3'-phosphoadenosine 5'-phosphate (PAP), which is mainly produced from 3'-phosphoadenosine 5'-phosphosulfate (PAPS) in the cytosol and regulates the expression of a set of nuclear genes that modulate plant growth in response to biotic and abiotic stresses. The adenosine bisphosphate phosphatase enzyme SAL1 dephosphorylates PAP to AMP in plastids and the mitochondria, but can also rescue sal1 Arabidopsis phenotypes (PAP accumulation, leaf morphology, growth, etc.) when expressed in the cytosol and the nucleus. To understand better the roles of the SAL1 protein in chloroplasts, the mitochondria, nuclei, and the cytosol, we have attempted to complement the sal1 mutant by specifically cargoing the transgenic SAL1 protein to these four cell compartments. Overexpression of SAL1 protein targeted to the nucleus or the mitochondria alone, or co-targeted to chloroplasts and the mitochondria, complemented most aspects of the sal1 phenotypes. Notably, targeting SAL1 to chloroplasts or the cytosol did not effectively rescue the sal1 phenotypes as these transgenic lines accumulated very low levels of SAL1 protein despite overexpressing SAL1 mRNA, suggesting a possibly lower stability of the SAL1 protein in these compartments. The diverse transgenic SAL1 lines exhibited a range of PAP levels. The latter needs to reach certain thresholds in the cell for its impacts on different processes such as leaf growth, regulation of rosette morphology, sulfate homeostasis, and glucosinolate biosynthesis. Collectively, these findings provide an initial platform for further dissection of the role of the SAL1-PAP pathway in different cellular processes under stress conditions.
    Keywords:  3′-phosphoadenosine 5′-phosphate (PAP); SAL1; chloroplasts; cytosol; metabolite signaling; mitochondria; nuclei; nucleotidase/phosphatase
  6. Carbohydr Polym. 2022 Apr 15. pii: S0144-8617(21)01468-5. [Epub ahead of print]282 119081
      Commercial porcine intestinal mucosal heparan sulfate (HS) is a valuable material for research into its biological functions. As it is usually produced as a side-stream of pharmaceutical heparin manufacture, its chemical composition may vary from batch to batch. We analysed the composition and structure of nine batches of HS from the same manufacturer. Statistical analysis of the disaccharide compositions placed these batches in three categories: group A had high GlcNAc and GlcNS, and low GlcN typical of HS; group B had high GlcN and GlcNS, and low GlcNAc; group C had high di- and trisulfated, and low unsulfated and monosulfated disaccharide repeats. These batches could be placed in the same categories based on their 1H NMR spectra and molecular weights. Anticoagulant and growth factor binding activities of these HS batches did not fit within these same groups but were related to the proportions of more highly sulfated disaccharide repeats.
    Keywords:  Anticoagulant activity; Disaccharide analysis; Growth factor binding; Heparan sulfate; Nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy; Size-exclusion chromatography
  7. Magn Reson Imaging. 2022 Feb 04. pii: S0730-725X(22)00023-6. [Epub ahead of print]
      During brain development, neural circuits are formed through cellular differentiation, cell migration, axon guidance, and synaptogenic processes by the coordinated actions of many genes. Abnormalities in neural development, especially connectivity defects, can result in psychiatric disorders, such as schizophrenia and autism. Recent advances in diffusion tensor imaging have enabled us to examine the brain's macroscopic nerve trajectories. In this study, we investigated the abnormalities of the commissural fibers that connect the left and right cerebral hemispheres in mice lacking heparan sulfate 6-O endosulfatases, Sulf1 and Sulf2 (Sulf1/2), which are extracellular enzymes that remove 6-O sulfate from heparan sulfate and thereby modulate the function of axon guidance factors. We previously demonstrated that Sulf1/2 double knockout (DKO) mouse embryos harbored defects in their corticospinal tract and that some of these DKO mice experienced corpus callosum agenesis. However, abnormalities of the commissural fibers in the adult DKO brain have not been systematically assessed. In this study, we investigated commissural fiber abnormalities in these mice by the combined use of radiological and histological analyses. First, we acquired diffusion-weighted images and three-dimensional-T2 weighted images of adult brains using a 9.4 T animal magnetic resonance imaging system and found that Sulf1/2 DKO mice had a smaller corpus callosum and dorsal hippocampal commissure. Next, we performed myelin staining and anterograde tracing, revealing that the dorsal hippocampal commissure was elongated in a rostral direction. These results suggest that Sulf1/2 play an important role in the formation of commissural tracts and that diffusion tensor imaging associated with microscopic analysis is a powerful tool to clarify nerve tract abnormalities.
    Keywords:  Brain; Commissural fibers; Endosulfatase; Heparan sulfate; Knockout mouse; Sulf1/2
  8. PLoS Genet. 2022 Feb;18(2): e1009994
      Alzheimer's Disease (AD) is a neuroinflammatory disease characterized partly by the inability to clear, and subsequent build-up, of amyloid-beta (Aβ). AD has a bi-directional relationship with circadian disruption (CD) with sleep disturbances starting years before disease onset. However, the molecular mechanism underlying the relationship of CD and AD has not been elucidated. Myeloid-based phagocytosis, a key component in the metabolism of Aβ, is circadianly-regulated, presenting a potential link between CD and AD. In this work, we revealed that the phagocytosis of Aβ42 undergoes a daily circadian oscillation. We found the circadian timing of global heparan sulfate proteoglycan (HSPG) biosynthesis was the molecular timer for the clock-controlled phagocytosis of Aβ and that both HSPG binding and aggregation may play a role in this oscillation. These data highlight that circadian regulation in immune cells may play a role in the intricate relationship between the circadian clock and AD.
  9. Dis Markers. 2022 ;2022 1358419
      Method: Patients on hemodialysis over 6 months were enrolled in this prospective cohort study and were divided into 2 groups based on plasma p-cresyl sulfate level. The primary end point was the first episode of ischemic stroke during follow-up. The association between p-cresyl sulfate and ischemic stroke incidence was analyzed by Kaplan-Meier method and Cox proportional hazard model.Results: 220 patients were enrolled in this study. 44 patients experienced episodes of first ischemic stroke during follow-up for 87.8 (47.6-119.5) months. Kaplan-Meier analysis demonstrated that the incidence of ischemic stroke in the high p-cresyl sulfate group was significantly higher than that in the low p-cresyl sulfate group (Log-Rank P = 0.007). Cox regression analysis as well proved that p-cresyl sulfate level was significantly associated with the first incidence of ischemic stroke (HR (hazard ratio) 2.332, 95% CI (95% confidence interval) 1.236-4.399, P = 0.009). After being adjusted for other confounding risk factors, the results persisted significant (model 11: HR 2.061, 95% CI 1.030-4.125, P = 0.041).
    Conclusion: Plasma p-cresyl sulfate predicts the first incidence of ischemic stroke in hemodialysis patients.
  10. J Lipid Res. 2022 Feb 07. pii: S0022-2275(22)00010-4. [Epub ahead of print] 100177
      Desulfation of cholesterol sulfate (CholS) to cholesterol (Chol) is an important event in epidermal homeostasis and necessary for stratum corneum (SC) barrier function. The CholS/Chol ratio decreases during SC maturation but remains high in pathological conditions such as X-linked ichthyosis, characterized by dry, scaly skin. The aim of this study was to characterize the influence of the CholS/Chol molar ratio on the structure, dynamics, and permeability of SC lipid model mixtures. We synthesized deuterated CholS and investigated lipid models with specifically deuterated components using 2H solid-state NMR spectroscopy at temperatures from 25°C to 80°C. While the rigid acyl chains in ceramide and fatty acids remained essentially rigid upon variation of the CholS/Chol ratio, both molecules were increasingly fluidized in lipid models containing higher CholS concentrations. We also show the X-ray repeat distance of the lipid lamellar phase (105 Å) and the orthorhombic chain packing of the ceramide's acyl chains and long free fatty acids did not change upon the variation of the CholS content. However, the Chol phase-separation visible in models with high Chol concentration disappeared at the 50:50 CholS/Chol ratio. This increased fluidity resulted in higher permeabilities to model markers of these SC models. These results reveal that a high CholS/Chol ratio fluidizes the sterol fraction and increases the permeability of the SC lipid phase while maintaining the lamellar lipid arrangement with an asymmetric sterol distribution. The CholS desulfation to Chol induces lipid rigidity and reduces permeability, consistent with the maturation of the SC lipid barrier.
    Keywords:  ceramides; cholesterol; lipid packing; lipids; nanostructure; order parameter; permeability; skin; sterols