bims-resufa Biomed News
on Respiratory supercomplex factors
Issue of 2023‒06‒04
three papers selected by
Vera Strogolova
Strong Microbials, Inc

  1. FEBS Lett. 2023 May 29.
      Mitochondria are the powerhouses of the cell as they produce the majority of ATP with their oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) machinery. The OXPHOS system is composed of the F1 Fo ATP synthase and four mitochondrial respiratory chain complexes, the terminal enzyme of which is the cytochrome c oxidase (complex IV) that transfers electrons to oxygen, generating water. Complex IV comprises of 14 structural subunits of dual genetic origin: while the three core subunits are mitochondrial encoded, the remaining constituents are encoded by the nuclear genome. Hence, the assembly of complex IV requires the coordination of two spatially separated gene expression machinery. Recent efforts elucidated an increasing number of proteins involved in mitochondrial gene expression, which are linked to complex IV assembly. Additionally, several COX1 biogenesis factors have been intensively biochemically investigated and an increasing number of structural snapshots shed light on the organization of macromolecular complexes such as the mitoribosome or the cytochrome c oxidase. Here, we focus on COX1 translation regulation and highlight the advanced understanding of early steps during COX1 assembly and its link to mitochondrial translation regulation.
    Keywords:  COX1; OXPHOS; complex IV; cytochrome c oxidase; mitochondria
  2. Nat Commun. 2023 May 29. 14(1): 2542
      Tetrahymena thermophila, a classic ciliate model organism, has been shown to possess tubular mitochondrial cristae and highly divergent electron transport chain involving four transmembrane protein complexes (I-IV). Here we report cryo-EM structures of its ~8 MDa megacomplex IV2 + (I + III2 + II)2, as well as a ~ 10.6 MDa megacomplex (IV2 + I + III2 + II)2 at lower resolution. In megacomplex IV2 + (I + III2 + II)2, each CIV2 protomer associates one copy of supercomplex I + III2 and one copy of CII, forming a half ring-shaped architecture that adapts to the membrane curvature of mitochondrial cristae. Megacomplex (IV2 + I + III2 + II)2 defines the relative position between neighbouring half rings and maintains the proximity between CIV2 and CIII2 cytochrome c binding sites. Our findings expand the current understanding of divergence in eukaryotic electron transport chain organization and how it is related to mitochondrial morphology.
  3. PLoS Pathog. 2023 Jun 01. 19(6): e1011430
      The mitochondrial electron transport chain (ETC) of apicomplexan parasites differs considerably from the ETC of the animals that these parasites infect, and is the target of numerous anti-parasitic drugs. The cytochrome c oxidase complex (Complex IV) of the apicomplexan Toxoplasma gondii ETC is more than twice the mass and contains subunits not found in human Complex IV, including a 13 kDa protein termed TgApiCox13. TgApiCox13 is homologous to a human iron-sulfur (Fe-S) cluster-containing protein called the mitochondrial inner NEET protein (HsMiNT) which is not a component of Complex IV in humans. Here, we establish that TgApiCox13 is a critical component of Complex IV in T. gondii, required for complex activity and stability. Furthermore, we demonstrate that TgApiCox13, like its human homolog, binds two Fe-S clusters. We show that the Fe-S clusters of TgApiCox13 are critical for ETC function, having an essential role in mediating Complex IV integrity. Our study provides the first functional characterisation of an Fe-S protein in Complex IV.