bims-plasge Biomed News
on Plastid genes
Issue of 2021‒01‒17
two papers selected by
Vera S. Bogdanova
Institute of Cytology and Genetics, Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences

  1. Front Plant Sci. 2020 ;11 608550
      RNA splicing is an essential post-transcriptional regulation in plant mitochondria and chloroplasts. As the mechanism of RNA splicing remains obscure, identification and functional elucidation of new splicing factors are necessary. Through a characterization of two maize mutants, we cloned Empty pericarp 24 (Emp24) and Empty pericarp 25 (Emp25). Both Emp24 and Emp25 encode mitochondrion-targeted P-type PPR proteins. EMP24 is required for the splicing of nad4 introns 1 and 3, which was reported (Ren Z. et al., 2019), and EMP25 functions in the splicing of nad5 introns 1, 2, and 3. Absence of either Nad4 or Nad5 proteins blocks the assembly of mitochondrial complex I, resulting in the formation of a sub-sized complex I of similar size in both mutants. Mass spectrometry identification revealed that the subcomplexes in both mutants lack an identical set of proteins of complex I. These results indicate that EMP24 and EMP25 function in the splicing of nad4 and nad5 introns, respectively, and are essential to maize kernel development. The identification of the subcomplexes provides genetic and molecular insights into the modular complex I assembly pathway in maize.
    Keywords:  EMP24; EMP25; maize; mitochondrion; pentatricopeptide repeat protein; seed development
  2. Theor Appl Genet. 2021 Jan 12.
      Pea (Pisum sativum L.), a cool-season legume crop grown in more than 85 countries, is the second most important grain legume and one of the major green vegetables in the world. While pea was historically studied as the genetic model leading to the discovery of the laws of genetics, pea research has lagged behind that of other major legumes in the genomics era, due to its large and complex genome. The evolving climate change and growing population have posed grand challenges to the objective of feeding the world, making it essential to invest research efforts to develop multi-omics resources and advanced breeding tools to support fast and continuous development of improved pea varieties. Recently, the pea researchers have achieved key milestones in omics and molecular breeding. The present review provides an overview of the recent important progress including the development of genetic resource databases, high-throughput genotyping assays, reference genome, genes/QTLs responsible for important traits, transcriptomic, proteomic, and phenomic atlases of various tissues under different conditions. These multi-faceted resources have enabled the successful implementation of various markers for monitoring early-generation populations as in marker-assisted backcrossing breeding programs. The emerging new breeding approaches such as CRISPR, speed breeding, and genomic selection are starting to change the paradigm of pea breeding. Collectively, the rich omics resources and omics-enable breeding approaches will enhance genetic gain in pea breeding and accelerate the release of novel pea varieties to meet the elevating demands on productivity and quality.