bims-plasge Biomed News
on Plastid genes
Issue of 2019‒02‒03
six papers selected by
Vera S. Bogdanova
Institute of Cytology and Genetics, Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences

  1. Mol Plant. 2019 Jan 28. pii: S1674-2052(19)30017-6. [Epub ahead of print]
      Cytoplasmic effects (CE) are discovered to influence a diverse array of agronomic traits in crops, and understanding the underlying mechanisms can help accelerate breeding programs. Seed oil content (SOC) is of great agricultural, nutritional and economic importance. However, the genetic basis of CE on SOC (CE-SOC) remains enigmatic. Here we employ an optimized approach to sequence cytoplasmic (plastid and mitochondrial) genomes of allotetraploid oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.) 51218 and 56366 cultivars that bear contrasting CE-SOC. By combining comparative genomics and genome-wide transcriptome analysis, we identify mitochondria-encoded orf188 as a potential CE-SOC determinant gene. Functional transgenic analyses in the model system Arabidopsis thaliana and rapeseed indicate that orf188 governs CE-SOC and can significantly increase SOC, strikingly, through promoting the yield of ATP. Further transcriptional profiling with microarray and RNA-Seq consistently reveal transcriptional reprogramming of mitochondrial energy metabolism to facilitate ATP production. Intriguingly, orf188 is a previously uncharacterized chimeric gene in the evolution of genetic novelty that endows rapeseed with positive CE-SOC. Our results sheds light on the molecular basis of CE contributing to a key quantitative trait in polyploidy crops and enrich the theory on maternal control of oil content, providing new scientific guidance for creation of high-oil germplasm resources.
    Keywords:  Brassica napus; crop breeding; cytoplasmic effects; energy metabolism; seed oil content
  2. Theor Appl Genet. 2019 Jan 28.
      KEY MESSAGE: A dominant dwarfing gene, ds - 4 , encodes an Aux/IAA protein that negatively regulates plant stature through an auxin signaling pathway. Dwarfism is an important agronomic trait affecting yield in many crop species. The molecular mechanisms underlying dwarfism in oilseed rape (Brassica napus) are poorly understood, restricting the progress of breeding dwarf varieties in this species. Here, we identified and characterized a new dwarf locus, DS-4, in B. napus. Next-generation sequencing-assisted genetic mapping and candidate gene analysis found that DS-4 encodes a nucleus-targeted auxin/indole-3-acetic acid (Aux/IAA) protein. A substitution (P87L) was found in the highly conserved degron motif of the Aux/IAA7 protein in the ds-4 mutant. This mutation co-segregated with the phenotype of individuals in the BC1F2 population. The P87L substitution was confirmed as the cause of the extreme dwarf phenotype by ectopic expression of the mutant allele BnaC05.iaa7 (equivalent to ds-4) in Arabidopsis. The P87L substitution blocked the interaction of BnaC05.iaa7 with TRANSPORT INHIBITOR RESPONSE 1 in the presence of auxin. The BnaC05.IAA7 gene is highly expressed in the cotyledons, hypocotyls, stems and leaves, but weakly in the roots and seeds of B. napus. Our findings provide new insights into the molecular mechanisms underlying dominant (gain-of-function) dwarfism in B. napus. Our identification of a distinct gene locus controlling plant height may help to improve lodging resistance in oilseed rape.
  3. Genome Biol. 2019 Jan 30. 20(1): 22
      BACKGROUND: Evidence of introgression, the transfer of genetic material, between crops and their wild relatives through spontaneous hybridization and subsequent backcrossing has been documented; however, the evolutionary patterns and consequences of introgression and its influence on the processes of crop domestication and varietal diversification are poorly understood.RESULTS: We investigate the genomic landscape and evolution of putative crop-wild-relative introgression by analyzing the nuclear and chloroplast genomes from a panel of wild (Glycine soja) and domesticated (Glycine max) soybeans. Our data suggest that naturally occurring introgression between wild and domesticated soybeans was widespread and that introgressed variation in both wild and domesticated soybeans was selected against throughout the genomes and preferentially removed from the genomic regions underlying selective sweeps and domestication quantitative trait locus (QTL). In both taxa, putative introgression was preferentially retained in recombination-repressed pericentromeric regions that exhibit lower gene densities, reflecting potential roles of recombination in purging introgression. Despite extensive removal of introgressed variation by recurrent selection for domestication-related QTL and associated genomic regions, spontaneous interspecific hybridization during soybean domestication appear to have contributed to a rapid varietal diversification with high levels of genetic diversity and asymmetric evolution between the nuclear and chloroplast genomes.
    CONCLUSIONS: This work reveals the evolutionary forces, patterns, and consequences of putative genomic introgression between crops and their wild relatives, and the effects of introgression on the processes of crop domestication and varietal diversification. We envision that interspecific introgression serves as an important mechanism for counteracting the reduction of genetic diversity in domesticated crops, particularly the ones under single domestication.
    Keywords:  Domestication; Genetic diversity; Introgression; Natural selection; Recurrent selection; Selective sweep; Varietal diversification
  4. Front Plant Sci. 2018 ;9 1927
      Purple carrots can accumulate large quantities of anthocyanins in their roots and -in some genetic backgrounds- petioles, and therefore they represent an excellent dietary source of antioxidant phytonutrients. In a previous study, using linkage analysis in a carrot F2 mapping population segregating for root and petiole anthocyanin pigmentation, we identified a region in chromosome 3 with co-localized QTL for all anthocyanin pigments of the carrot root, whereas petiole pigmentation segregated as a single dominant gene and mapped to one of these "root pigmentation" regions conditioning anthocyanin biosynthesis. In the present study, we performed fine mapping combined with gene expression analyses (RNA-Seq and RT-qPCR) to identify candidate genes controlling anthocyanin pigmentation in the carrot root and petiole. Fine mapping was performed in four carrot populations with different genetic backgrounds and patterns of pigmentation. The regions controlling root and petiole pigmentation in chromosome 3 were delimited to 541 and 535 kb, respectively. Genome wide prediction of transcription factor families known to regulate the anthocyanin biosynthetic pathway coupled with orthologous and phylogenetic analyses enabled the identification of a cluster of six MYB transcription factors, denominated DcMYB6 to DcMYB11, associated with the regulation of anthocyanin biosynthesis. No anthocyanin biosynthetic genes were present in this region. Comparative transcriptome analysis indicated that upregulation of DcMYB7 was always associated with anthocyanin pigmentation in both root and petiole tissues, whereas DcMYB11 was only upregulated with pigmentation in petioles. In the petiole, the level of expression of DcMYB11 was higher than DcMYB7. DcMYB6, a gene previously suggested as a key regulator of carrot anthocyanin biosynthesis, was not consistently associated with pigmentation in either tissue. These results strongly suggest that DcMYB7 is a candidate gene for root anthocyanin pigmentation in all the genetic backgrounds included in this study. DcMYB11 is a candidate gene for petiole pigmentation in all the purple carrot sources in this study. Since DcMYB7 is co-expressed with DcMYB11 in purple petioles, the latter gene may act also as a co-regulator of anthocyanin pigmentation in the petioles. This study provides linkage-mapping and functional evidence for the candidacy of these genes for the regulation of carrot anthocyanin biosynthesis.
    Keywords:  Daucus carota L.; anthocyanin accumulation; candidate genes; fine mapping; regulation; root and petiole; transcriptome
  5. PLoS One. 2019 ;14(1): e0211342
      Progress in common bean breeding requires the exploitation of genetic variation among market classes, races and gene pools. The present study was conducted to determine the amount of genetic variation and the degree of relatedness among 192 selected common bean advanced cultivars using 58 simple-sequence-repeat markers (SSR) evenly distributed along the 11 linkage groups of the Phaseolus reference map. All the lines belonged to commercial seed type classes that are widely grown in the USA and include both dry bean and snap beans for the fresh and processing markets. Through population structure, principal components analyses, cluster analysis, and discriminant analysis of principal components (DAPC), Andean and Mesoamerican genotypes as well as most American commercial type classes could be distinguished. The genetic relationship among the commercial cultivars revealed by the SSR markers was generally in agreement with known pedigree data. The Mesoamerican cultivars were separated into three major groups-black, small white, and navy accessions clustered together in a distinct group, while great northern and pinto clustered in another group, showing mixed origin. The Andean cultivars were distributed in two different groups. The kidney market classes formed a single group, while the green bean accessions were distributed between the Andean and Mesoamerican groups, showing inter-gene pool genetic admixture. For a subset of 24 SSR markers, we compared and contrasted the genetic diversity of the commercial cultivars with those of wild and domesticated landrace accessions of common bean. An overall reduction in genetic diversity was observed in both gene pools, Andean and Mesoamerican, from wild to landraces to advanced cultivars. The limited diversity in the commercial cultivars suggests that an important goal of bean breeding programs should be to broaden the cultivated gene pool, particularly the genetic diversity of specific commercial classes, using the genetic variability present in common bean landraces.
  6. Int J Mol Sci. 2019 Jan 29. pii: E578. [Epub ahead of print]20(3):
      Cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS), which is controlled by mitochondrial genes, is an important trait for commercial hybrid seed production. So far, genes controlling this trait are still not clear in pepper. In this study, complete mitochondrial genomes were sequenced and assembled for the CMS line 138A and its maintainer line 138B. The genome size of 138A is 504,210 bp, which is 8618 bp shorter than that of 138B. Meanwhile, more than 214 and 215 open reading frames longer than 100 amino acids (aas) were identified in 138A and 138B, respectively. Mitochondrial genome structure of 138A was quite different from that of 138B, indicating the existence of recombination and rearrangement events. Based on the mitochondrial genome sequence and structure variations, mitochondrion of 138A and FS4401, a Korean origin CMS line, may have inherited from a common female ancestor, but their CMS traits did originate separately. Candidate gene selection was performed according to the published characteristics of the CMS genes, including the presence SNPs and InDels, located in unique regions, their chimeric structure, co-transcription, and transmembrane domain. A total of 35 ORFs were considered as potential candidate genes and 14 of these were selected, with orf300a and 0rf314a as strong candidates. A new marker, orf300a, was developed which did co-segregate with the CMS trait.
    Keywords:  CMS-associated gene; cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS); mitochondria; pepper (Capsicum annuum L.)