bims-plasge Biomed News
on Plastid genes
Issue of 2018‒08‒12
four papers selected by
Vera S. Bogdanova
Institute of Cytology and Genetics, Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences

  1. Plant Physiol Biochem. 2018 Jul 20. pii: S0981-9428(18)30322-X. [Epub ahead of print]130 455-463
      The longevity of seeds stored in Genebank is based on their storability. However, the mechanism of seed storability is largely unknown. In previous studies, accelerated ageing treatments were always applied for rapidly acquiring different seed viabilities, which could not reflect the actual situation during seed storage, especially for the seed stored in Genebank. In this study, two wheat genotypes (accession TRI_23248 and TRI_10230) were supplied by IPK-Gatersleben Genebank, Germany, where they were stored for 10 years in the long-term storage (-18 °C) and at ambient conditions (20 °C) The comparison of viability of those seed after this storage period, identified TRI_23248 as storage tolerant (ST) and TRI_10230 as storage sensitive (SS). The abundance patterns of proteins in these seeds identified 93 protein spots in the ST and 105 spots in the SS seeds that were markedly changed; their functions were mainly associated with disease or defense, protein destination and storage, energy, and other. The ST seeds possessed a stronger ability in activating the defense system against oxidative damage, utilizing storage proteins for germination, and maintaining energy metabolism for ATP supply. These results provided novel insights into the mechanism of seed storability, which can facilitate the comprehensive understanding of seed longevity.
    Keywords:  Genebank; Longevity; Proteomics; Storability; Wheat
  2. Mol Phylogenet Evol. 2018 Aug 01. pii: S1055-7903(18)30222-7. [Epub ahead of print]
      The relationships among the genera of the early-diverging eudicot family Berberidaceae have long been controversial. To resolve these relationships and to better understand plastome evolution within the family, we sequenced the complete plastome sequences of ten Berberidaceae genera, combined these with six existing plastomes for the family, and conducted a series of phylogenomic analyses on the resulting data set. Five of the newly sequenced plastomes were found to possess the typical angiosperm plastome complement of 79 protein-coding genes, 4 rRNA genes, and 30 tRNA genes. The infA gene was found to be pseudogenized in Bongardia, Diphylleia, Dysosma and Vancouveria; rps7 was found to be severely truncated in Diphylleia, Dysosma and Podophyllum; clpP was found to be highly divergent in Vancouveria; and a ∼19 kb inversion was detected in Bongardia. Maximum likelihood phylogenetic analyses of a 79-gene, 24-taxon data set including nearly all genera of Berberidaceae recovered four chromosome groups (x=6, 7, 8, 10), resolved the x=8 group as the sister to the x=10 group, and supported the monophyly of the clade comprising x=7, 8, 10. The generic relationships within each group were all resolved with high support. Based on gene presence within the Inverted Repeat (IR), a total of seven plastome IR types were identified within Berberidaceae. Biogeographical analysis indicated the origin and diversification of Berberidaceae has likely been strongly influenced by the distribution of its favored habitat: temperate forests.
    Keywords:  Berberidaceae; Inversion; Phylogenomic analyses; Plastome; Pseudogene
  3. New Phytol. 2018 Aug 05.
      Despite their ubiquitous distribution and significant ecological roles, soil microorganisms have long been neglected in investigations addressing parasitic plant-host interactions. Because nutrient deprivation is a primary cause of host damage by parasitic plants, we hypothesized that beneficial soil microorganisms conferring nutrient benefits to parasitized hosts may play important roles in alleviating damage. We conducted a pot cultivation experiment to test the inoculation effect of an arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus (Glomus mosseae), a rhizobium (Rhizobium leguminosarum) and their interactive effects, on alleviation of damage to a legume host (Trifolium repens) by two root hemiparasitic plants with different nutrient requirements (N-demanding Pedicularis rex and P-demanding P. tricolor). Strong interactive effects between inoculation regimes and hemiparasite identity were observed. The relative benefits of microbial inoculation were related to hemiparasite nutrient requirements. Dual inoculation with the rhizobium strongly enhanced promotional arbuscular mycorrhizal effects on hosts parasitized by P. rex, but reduced the arbuscular mycorrhizal promotion on hosts parasitized by P. tricolor. Our results demonstrate substantial contribution of arbuscular mycorrhizal and rhizobial symbioses to alleviating damage to the legume host by root hemiparasites, and suggest that soil microorganisms are critical factors regulating host-parasite interactions and should be taken into account in future studies.
    Keywords:   Pedicularis ; arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi; dual inoculation; legume host; multi-species interaction; nutritional symbioses; rhizobia; root hemiparasitic plant.
  4. New Phytol. 2018 Aug 05.
      Organelle movement and positioning are correlated with plant growth and development. Movement characteristics are seemingly erratic yet respond to external stimuli including pathogens and light. Given these clear correlations, we still do not understand the specific roles that movement plays in these processes. There are few exceptions including organelle inheritance during cell division and photorelocation of chloroplasts to prevent photodamage. The molecular and biophysical components that drive movement can be broken down into cytoskeletal components, motor proteins and tethers, which allow organelles to physically interact with one another. Our understanding of these components and concepts has exploded over the past decade, with recent technological advances allowing an even more in-depth profiling. Here, we provide an overview of the cytoskeletal and tethering components and discuss the mechanisms behind organelle movement in higher plants.
    Keywords:  actin; cytoskeleton; dynamics; membrane contact sites; myosin; organelle; tether