bims-ovdlit Biomed News
on Ovarian cancer: early diagnosis, liquid biopsy and therapy
Issue of 2024‒03‒31
two papers selected by
Lara Paracchini, Humanitas Research

  1. Nat Rev Clin Oncol. 2024 Mar 28.
      Globally, ovarian cancer is the eighth most common cancer in women, accounting for an estimated 3.7% of cases and 4.7% of cancer deaths in 2020. Until the early 2000s, age-standardized incidence was highest in northern Europe and North America, but this trend has changed; incidence is now declining in these regions and increasing in parts of eastern Europe and Asia. Ovarian cancer is a very heterogeneous disease and, even among the most common type, namely epithelial ovarian cancer, five major clinically and genetically distinct histotypes exist. Most high-grade serous ovarian carcinomas are now recognized to originate in the fimbrial ends of the fallopian tube. This knowledge has led to more cancers being coded as fallopian tube in origin, which probably explains some of the apparent declines in ovarian cancer incidence, particularly in high-income countries; however, it also suggests that opportunistic salpingectomy offers an important opportunity for prevention. The five histotypes share several reproductive and hormonal risk factors, although differences also exist. In this Review, we summarize the epidemiology of this complex disease, comparing the different histotypes, and consider the potential for prevention. We also discuss how changes in the prevalence of risk and protective factors might have contributed to the observed changes in incidence and what this might mean for incidence in the future.
  2. Clin Cancer Res. 2024 Mar 27.
      PURPOSE: Shallow whole genome sequencing (sWGS) can detect copy number (CN) aberrations. In high-grade serous ovarian (HGSOC) sWGS identified CN signatures such as homologous recombination deficiency (HRD) to direct therapy. We applied sWGS with targeted sequencing to p53abn endometrial cancers (ECs) to identify additional prognostic stratification and therapeutic opportunities.EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: sWGS and targeted panel sequencing was performed on formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded p53abn ECs. CN alterations, mutational data and CN signatures were derived, and associations to clinicopathologic and outcomes data were assessed.
    RESULTS: In 187 p53abn ECs, 5 distinct CN signatures were identified. Signature 5 was associated with BRCA1/2 CN loss with features similar to HGSOC HRD signature. 22% potential HRD cases were identified, 35 patients with signature 5, and 8 patients with BRCA1/2 somatic mutations. Signatures 3 and 4 were associated with a high ploidy state, and CCNE1, ERBB2 and MYC amplifications, with mutations in PIK3CA enriched in signature 3. We observed improved overall survival (OS) for patients with signature 2 and worse OS for signatures 1 and 3. 28% of patients had CCNE1 amplification and this subset was enriched with carcinosarcoma histotype. 34% of patients, across all histotypes, had ERBB2 amplification and/or HER2 overexpression on immunohistochemistry, which was associated with worse outcomes. Mutations in PPP2R1A (29%) and FBXW7 (16%) were among the top 5 most common mutations.
    CONCLUSIONS: sWGS and targeted sequencing identified therapeutic opportunities in 75% of p53abn EC patients. Further research is needed to determine the efficacy of treatments targeting these identified pathways within p53abn ECs.