bims-ovdlit Biomed News
on Ovarian cancer: early diagnosis, liquid biopsy and therapy
Issue of 2023‒12‒24
two papers selected by
Lara Paracchini, Humanitas Research

  1. Curr Oncol. 2023 Nov 29. 30(12): 10179-10194
      Epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) is a heterogeneous group of malignancies, including high-grade serous ovarian cancer (HGSC). HGSC is often diagnosed at advanced stages and is linked to TP53 variants. While BRCA variants elevate risk, most HGSC cases occur in individuals without known genetic variants, necessitating prevention strategies for people without known high-risk genetic variants. Effective prevention programs are also needed due to the lack of traditional screening options. An emerging primary prevention strategy is opportunistic salpingectomy, which involves removing fallopian tubes during another planned pelvic surgery. Opportunistic salpingectomy offers a safe and cost-effective preventative option that is gaining global adoption. With the publication of the first cohort study of patients who underwent salpingectomy, specifically for cancer prevention, attention has turned to broadening opportunities for salpingectomy in addition to more targeted approaches. Prevention opportunities are promising with increasing adoption of salpingectomy and the increased understanding of the etiology of the distinct histotypes of ovarian cancer. Yet, further research on targeted risk-reducing salpingectomy with thoughtful consideration of equity is necessary to reduce death and suffering from ovarian cancer.
    Keywords:  cancer prevention; fallopian tube; opportunistic salpingectomy; ovarian cancer; salpingectomy
  2. Nat Rev Clin Oncol. 2023 Dec 15.
      p53, which is encoded by the most frequently mutated gene in cancer, TP53, is an attractive target for novel cancer therapies. Despite major challenges associated with this approach, several compounds that either augment the activity of wild-type p53 or restore all, or some, of the wild-type functions to p53 mutants are currently being explored. In wild-type TP53 cancer cells, p53 function is often abrogated by overexpression of the negative regulator MDM2, and agents that disrupt p53-MDM2 binding can trigger a robust p53 response, albeit potentially with induction of p53 activity in non-malignant cells. In TP53-mutant cancer cells, compounds that promote the refolding of missense mutant p53 or the translational readthrough of nonsense mutant TP53 might elicit potent cell death. Some of these compounds have been, or are being, tested in clinical trials involving patients with various types of cancer. Nonetheless, no p53-targeting drug has so far been approved for clinical use. Advances in our understanding of p53 biology provide some clues as to the underlying reasons for the variable clinical activity of p53-restoring therapies seen thus far. In this Review, we discuss the intricate interactions between p53 and its cellular and microenvironmental contexts and factors that can influence p53's activity. We also propose several strategies for improving the clinical efficacy of these agents through the complex perspective of p53 functionality.