bims-ovdlit Biomed News
on Ovarian cancer: early diagnosis, liquid biopsy and therapy
Issue of 2023‒11‒05
five papers selected by
Lara Paracchini, Humanitas Research

  1. Obstet Gynecol. 2023 Nov 02.
      BACKGROUND: The cumulative lifetime risk of ovarian cancer is 16-68% and 11-30% in female BRCA1 and BRCA2 gene alteration carriers, respectively. Risk-reducing bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy (RRSO) is the only proven way to reduce ovarian cancer mortality. We report a series of patients who underwent risk-reducing surgery at the time of planned obstetric-indicated cesarean delivery.CASES: This is a case series of four women carrying a pathogenic germline BRCA1 or BRCA2 gene alteration who underwent RRSO at the time of cesarean delivery between March 1, 2018, and March 31, 2022. All women were referred during pregnancy to the University College London Hospitals Familial Cancer Clinic for consideration of RRSO at the time of obstetric-indicated cesarean delivery. Women were considered eligible for RRSO if they had a proven pathogenic germline alteration, would have completed childbearing after the cesarean delivery, and were older than age 35 or 40 years with BRCA1 or BRCA2 alterations, respectively. Operating time, blood loss, transfusion requirements, length of hospital stay, complications, and ability to breastfeed were assessed and, where possible, compared with the institutional means for similar patients who underwent cesarean delivery only, to determine whether RRSO was associated with increased morbidity. Women were contacted 11-59 months postprocedure to assess satisfaction. The mean blood loss was 687 mL (range 400-1,000 mL), mean operating time was 68 minutes, mean length of hospital stay was 3 days, and mean change in hemoglobin was -1 g/dL. No patient required a transfusion, had internal organ damage, returned to the operating room, or was readmitted. One of two women with intact breast tissue successfully breastfed, and the other chose to bottle feed. The mean contemporaneous institutional blood loss for cesarean delivery was not significantly different at 681 mL for singleton pregnancies and 872 mL for twin pregnancies. All four women reported a high level of satisfaction with the combined procedure.
    CONCLUSION: Our results show that RRSO can be performed at the time of cesarean delivery with high patient satisfaction. This approach can be offered to appropriately counseled individuals, with the benefit of avoiding the need for two separate procedures, with potentially reduced patient morbidity and health care costs.
  2. Exp Mol Med. 2023 Nov 01.
      Cell-free DNA (cfDNA) sequencing has demonstrated great potential for early cancer detection. However, most large-scale studies have focused only on either targeted methylation sites or whole-genome sequencing, limiting comprehensive analysis that integrates both epigenetic and genetic signatures. In this study, we present a platform that enables simultaneous analysis of whole-genome methylation, copy number, and fragmentomic patterns of cfDNA in a single assay. Using a total of 950 plasma (361 healthy and 589 cancer) and 240 tissue samples, we demonstrate that a multifeature cancer signature ensemble (CSE) classifier integrating all features outperforms single-feature classifiers. At 95.2% specificity, the cancer detection sensitivity with methylation, copy number, and fragmentomic models was 77.2%, 61.4%, and 60.5%, respectively, but sensitivity was significantly increased to 88.9% with the CSE classifier (p value < 0.0001). For tissue of origin, the CSE classifier enhanced the accuracy beyond the methylation classifier, from 74.3% to 76.4%. Overall, this work proves the utility of a signature ensemble integrating epigenetic and genetic information for accurate cancer detection.
  3. Ann Oncol. 2023 Oct 26. pii: S0923-7534(23)04325-9. [Epub ahead of print]
    ESMO Guidelines Committee
    Keywords:  BRCA; ESMO Clinical Practice Guideline; hereditary breast and ovarian cancer syndromes; risk reduction