bims-ovdlit Biomed News
on Ovarian cancer: early diagnosis, liquid biopsy and therapy
Issue of 2023‒09‒10
three papers selected by
Lara Paracchini, Humanitas Research

  1. Int J Gynecol Cancer. 2023 09 04. 33(9): 1345-1346
    Keywords:  Ovarian Cancer
  2. J Cancer Res Clin Oncol. 2023 Sep 06.
      PURPOSE: Homologous recombination deficiency (HRD) plays a crucial role in ovarian cancer patients who are treated with Poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase inhibitors (PARPis). It could be defined as a prognosis biomarker. However, many high throughput sequencing methods for evaluating HRD, including HRDetect (WGS 10X), SigMA (WGS 40X or panel 1000X), and scarHRD (WGS 30X), are technically complex, time and data-storage consuming, and costly. Herein, we aimed to develop a low-cost method by low sequencing coverage to identify HRD status for precision medication.METHODS: We utilized ShallowHRD, a software tool to evaluate tumor HRD based on whole genome sequencing (WGS) at low coverage (1X), and established a novel scoring system, ShallowHRD score system.
    RESULTS: Compared with negative ShallowHRD status (ShallowHRD score < 15 or BRCAwild), positive ShallowHRD status (ShallowHRD score ≥ 15 or BRCAmut) presented favorable survival after being treated with PARPis.
    CONCLUSION: The ShallowHRD status is a good biomarker for predicting prognosis, which could help guide the clinical application of PARPis in ovarian cancer patients by a cost-effective, time and data-storage saving method.
    Keywords:  Homologous recombination deficiency; Ovarian cancer; PARPis; ShallowHRD; Whole genome sequencing
  3. JAMA Surg. 2023 Sep 06.
      Importance: Most ovarian cancers originate in the fimbriated end of the fallopian tube. This has led to the hypothesis that surgical resection of the fallopian tubes at the time of gynecologic and nongynecologic surgical procedures-referred to as an opportunistic salpingectomy-may prevent the development of epithelial ovarian cancer for women at an average risk of developing the disease.Objective: To compile a comprehensive, state-of-the-science review examining the current landscape of performing bilateral salpingectomy for ovarian cancer prevention.
    Evidence Review: A systematic review of the literature was performed on March 4, 2022, to identify studies examining salpingectomy for ovarian cancer prevention. This review was performed according to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-analyses (PRISMA) 2020 statement. Four databases were selected: PubMed via the National Library of Medicine's, Embase via Elsevier's, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) via Wiley's Cochrane Library, and Northern Light Life Sciences Conference Abstracts via Ovid. A total of 20 gray literature sources, including 1 database, 2 registers, 1 repository, 1 index, 1 archive, 1 preprint server, 1 agency, and 12 organizations, were also searched.
    Findings: The initial search produced 1089 results; a total of 158 publications were included in the final review. Salpingectomy has been associated with ovarian cancer risk reduction of approximately 80%. Studies have demonstrated that salpingectomy was safe, cost-effective, and was not associated with an earlier age of menopause onset. With widespread implementation, salpingectomy has the potential to reduce ovarian cancer mortality in the US by an estimated 15%. Both physician and patient awareness regarding the adnexa as the origin for most ovarian cancers, as well as the existence of salpingectomy and its potential benefits in reducing ovarian cancer risk, has increased during the past decade. Raising awareness and developing effective implementation strategies are essential.
    Conclusions and Relevance: The results of this systematic review suggest that bilateral salpingectomy for ovarian cancer prevention was safe and feasible and has the potential to be a cost-effective and cost-saving strategy across the population. Prospective studies to demonstrate long-term survival outcomes and feasibility in nongynecologic surgical procedures are warranted.