bims-ovdlit Biomed News
on Ovarian cancer: early diagnosis, liquid biopsy and therapy
Issue of 2023‒01‒29
four papers selected by
Lara Paracchini
Humanitas Research

  1. J Natl Cancer Inst. 2023 Jan 23. pii: djad011. [Epub ahead of print]
    AOCS Group
      BACKGROUND: The role of ovulation in epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) is supported by the consistent protective effects of parity and oral contraceptive (OC) use. Whether these factors protect through anovulation alone remains unclear. We explored the association between lifetime ovulatory years (LOY) and EOC.METHODS: LOY was calculated using 12 algorithms. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) estimated the association between LOY or LOY components and EOC among 26,204 controls and 21,267 cases from 25 studies. To assess whether LOY components act through ovulation suppression alone, we compared beta coefficients obtained from regression models to expected estimates assuming one year of ovulation suppression has the same effect regardless of source.
    RESULTS: LOY was associated with increased EOC risk (ORs per year increase: 1.014 (95%CI 1.009-1.020) to 1.044 (95%CI 1.041-1.048)). Individual LOY components, except age at menarche, also associated with EOC. The estimated model coefficient for OC use and pregnancies were 4.45 times and 12-15 fold greater than expected, respectively. LOY was associated with high-grade serous (HGSOC), low-grade serous (LGSOC), endometrioid, and clear cell histotypes (ORs per year increase: 1.054, 1.040, 1.065, and 1.098, respectively), but not mucinous tumors. Estimated coefficients of LOY components were close to expected estimates for HGSOC but larger than expected for LGSOC, endometrioid, and clear cell histotypes.
    CONCLUSIONS: LOY is positively associated with non-mucinous EOC. Differences between estimated and expected model coefficients for LOY components suggest factors beyond ovulation underlie the associations between LOY components and EOC in general and for non-HGSOC.
    Keywords:  OCAC; case-control study; epithelial ovarian cancer; incessant ovulation; lifetime ovulation years; pooled analysis
  2. Bioinform Adv. 2022 ;2(1): vbac017
      Summary: Fragmentation patterns of cell-free DNA reflect the chromatin structure of the cells from which these fragments are derived. Nucleosomes protect the DNA from fragmentation, resulting in decreased sequencing coverage in regions of open chromatin. LIQUORICE is a user-friendly software tool that takes aligned whole-genome sequencing data as input and calculates bias-corrected coverage signatures for predefined, application-specific sets of genomic regions. The tool thereby enables a blood-based analysis of cell death in the body, and it provides a minimally invasive assessment of tumor chromatin states and cell-of-origin. With user-defined sets of regions that exhibit tissue-specific or disease-specific open chromatin, LIQUORICE can be applied to a wide range of detection, classification and quantification tasks in the analysis of liquid biopsies.Availability and implementation: LIQUORICE is freely and openly available as a Python package and command-line tool for UNIX-based systems from bioconda. Documentation, examples and usage instructions are provided at
    Supplementary information: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics Advances online.
  3. Nature. 2023 Jan;613(7945): 629
    Keywords:  Evolution; Genetics; History