bims-ovdlit Biomed News
on Ovarian cancer: early diagnosis, liquid biopsy and therapy
Issue of 2022‒10‒23
four papers selected by
Lara Paracchini
Humanitas Research

  1. Nat Cancer. 2022 Oct;3(10): 1181-1191
      Talazoparib, a PARP inhibitor, is active in germline BRCA1 and BRCA2 (gBRCA1/2)-mutant advanced breast cancer, but its activity beyond gBRCA1/2 is poorly understood. We conducted Talazoparib Beyond BRCA ( NCT02401347 ), an open-label phase II trial, to evaluate talazoparib in patients with pretreated advanced HER2-negative breast cancer (n = 13) or other solid tumors (n = 7) with mutations in homologous recombination (HR) pathway genes other than BRCA1 and BRCA2. In patients with breast cancer, four patients had a Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors (RECIST) partial response (overall response rate, 31%), and three additional patients had stable disease of ≥6 months (clinical benefit rate, 54%). All patients with germline mutations in PALB2 (gPALB2; encoding partner and localizer of BRCA2) had treatment-associated tumor regression. Tumor or plasma circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA) HR deficiency (HRD) scores were correlated with treatment outcomes and were increased in all gPALB2 tumors. In addition, a gPALB2-associated mutational signature was associated with tumor response. Thus, talazoparib has been demonstrated to have efficacy in patients with advanced breast cancer who have gPALB2 mutations, showing activity in the context of HR pathway gene mutations beyond gBRCA1/2.
  2. JAMA Oncol. 2022 Oct 20.
      Importance: Personalized medicine based on tumor profiling and identification of actionable genomic alterations is pivotal in cancer management. Although tissue biopsy is still preferred for diagnosis, liquid biopsy of blood-based tumor analytes, such as circulating tumor DNA, is a rapidly emerging technology for tumor profiling.Observations: This review presents a practical overview for clinicians and allied health care professionals for selection of the most appropriate liquid biopsy assay, specifically focusing on circulating tumor DNA and how it may affect patient treatment and case management across multiple tumor types. Multiple factors influence the analytical validity, clinical validity, and clinical utility of testing. This review provides recommendations and practical guidance for best practice. Current methodologies include polymerase chain reaction-based approaches and those that use next-generation sequencing (eg, capture-based profiling, whole exome, or genome sequencing). Factors that may influence utility include sensitivity and specificity, quantity of circulating tumor DNA, detection of a small vs a large panel of genes, and clonal hematopoiesis of indeterminate potential. Currently, liquid biopsy appears useful in patients unable to undergo biopsy or where mutations detected may be more representative of the predominant tumor burden than for tissue-based assays. Other potential applications may include screening, primary diagnosis, residual disease, local recurrence, therapy selection, or early therapy response and resistance monitoring.
    Conclusions and Relevance: This review found that liquid biopsy is increasingly being used clinically in advanced lung cancer, and ongoing research is identifying applications of circulating tumor DNA-based testing that complement tissue analysis across a broad range of clinical settings. Circulating tumor DNA technologies are advancing quickly and are demonstrating potential benefits for patients, health care practitioners, health care systems, and researchers, at many stages of the patient oncologic journey.
  3. J Clin Oncol. 2022 Oct 17. JCO2201207
      PURPOSE: In patients with high-grade ovarian cancer, predictors of bevacizumab efficacy in first-line setting are needed. In the ICON-7 trial, a poor tumor intrinsic chemosensitivity (defined by unfavorable modeled cancer antigen-125 [CA-125] ELIMination rate constant K [KELIM] score) was a predictive biomarker. Only the patients with high-risk disease (suboptimally resected stage III, or stage IV) exhibiting unfavorable KELIM score < 1.0 had overall survival (OS) benefit from bevacizumab (median: 29.7 v 20.6 months; hazard ratio [HR], 0.78). An external validation study in the GOG-0218 trial was performed.METHODS: In GOG-0218, 1,873 patients were treated with carboplatin-paclitaxel ± concurrent-maintenance bevacizumab/placebo. Patient KELIM values were calculated with CA-125 kinetics during the first 100 chemotherapy days by the Lyon University team. The association between KELIM score (favorable ≥ 1.0, or unfavorable < 1.0) and bevacizumab benefit for progression-free survival (PFS)/OS was independently assessed by NGR-GOG using univariate/multivariate analyses.
    RESULTS: KELIM was assessable in 1,662 patients with ≥ 3 CA-125 available values. An unfavorable KELIM score was associated with bevacizumab benefit compared with placebo (PFS: HR, 0.70; 95% CI, 0.59 to 0.82; OS: HR, 0.87; 95% CI, 0.73 to 1.03), whereas a favorable KELIM was not (PFS: HR, 0.96; 95% CI, 0.79 to 1.17; OS: HR, 1.11; 95% CI, 0.89 to 1.39). The highest benefit was observed in patients with a high-risk disease exhibiting unfavorable KELIM, for PFS (median: 9.1 v 5.6 months; HR, 0.64; 95% CI, 0.53 to 0.78), and for OS (median: 35.1 v 29.1 months; HR, 0.79; 95% CI, 0.65 to 0.97).
    CONCLUSION: This GOG-0218 trial investigation validates ICON-7 findings about the association between poor tumor chemosensitivity and benefit from concurrent-maintenance bevacizumab, suggesting that bevacizumab may mainly be effective in patients with poorly chemosensitive disease. Bevacizumab may be prioritized in patients with a high-risk and poorly chemosensitive disease to improve their PFS/OS (patient KELIM score calculator available on the Biomarker Kinetics website).