bims-ovdlit Biomed News
on Ovarian cancer: early diagnosis, liquid biopsy and therapy
Issue of 2022‒05‒01
two papers selected by
Lara Paracchini
Humanitas Research

  1. Clin Cancer Res. 2022 Apr 27. pii: clincanres.0336.2022. [Epub ahead of print]
      Dramatic differences in outcome between early- and late-stage HGSC suggest perhaps distinct genetic origins due to differences in exposures to mutational processes. Evidence to support this hypothesis was recently reported by comparative analysis of copy number signatures between early- and late-stage HGSCs.
  2. PLoS One. 2022 ;17(4): e0266623
      Cancer is the leading cause of death in dogs, yet there are no established screening paradigms for early detection. Liquid biopsy methods that interrogate cancer-derived genomic alterations in cell-free DNA in blood are being adopted for multi-cancer early detection in human medicine and are now available for veterinary use. The CANcer Detection in Dogs (CANDiD) study is an international, multi-center clinical study designed to validate the performance of a novel multi-cancer early detection "liquid biopsy" test developed for noninvasive detection and characterization of cancer in dogs using next-generation sequencing (NGS) of blood-derived DNA; study results are reported here. In total, 1,358 cancer-diagnosed and presumably cancer-free dogs were enrolled in the study, representing the range of breeds, weights, ages, and cancer types seen in routine clinical practice; 1,100 subjects met inclusion criteria for analysis and were used in the validation of the test. Overall, the liquid biopsy test demonstrated a 54.7% (95% CI: 49.3-60.0%) sensitivity and a 98.5% (95% CI: 97.0-99.3%) specificity. For three of the most aggressive canine cancers (lymphoma, hemangiosarcoma, osteosarcoma), the detection rate was 85.4% (95% CI: 78.4-90.9%); and for eight of the most common canine cancers (lymphoma, hemangiosarcoma, osteosarcoma, soft tissue sarcoma, mast cell tumor, mammary gland carcinoma, anal sac adenocarcinoma, malignant melanoma), the detection rate was 61.9% (95% CI: 55.3-68.1%). The test detected cancer signal in patients representing 30 distinct cancer types and provided a Cancer Signal Origin prediction for a subset of patients with hematological malignancies. Furthermore, the test accurately detected cancer signal in four presumably cancer-free subjects before the onset of clinical signs, further supporting the utility of liquid biopsy as an early detection test. Taken together, these findings demonstrate that NGS-based liquid biopsy can offer a novel option for noninvasive multi-cancer detection in dogs.