bims-ovdlit Biomed News
on Ovarian cancer: early diagnosis, liquid biopsy and therapy
Issue of 2022‒04‒03
three papers selected by
Lara Paracchini
Humanitas Research

  1. Anticancer Res. 2022 Apr;42(4): 2017-2022
      BACKGROUND/AIM: To assess response rates and survival in patients with recurrent platinum-sensitive epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) who received PARP inhibitor (PARP-i) maintenance and who subsequently underwent salvage chemotherapy for disease progression after PARPi.PATIENTS AND METHODS: This retrospective investigation analyzed 103 patients who were treated in five Italian Gynecologic centers. The PARPi used was olaparib in 46 patients, niraparib in 55, and rucaparib in 2. The interval time between the last cycle of pre- PARPi platinum-based chemotherapy and the diagnosis of progression during PARPi maintenance was defined as platinum-free interval (PFI).
    RESULTS: Of the 28 patients with PFI <6 months, 23 received chemotherapy (non-platinum single agent, 20; trabectedin + pegylated liposomal doxorubicin (PLD), 3). Forty-two of the 43 patients with PFI 6-12 months underwent chemotherapy (platinum-based chemotherapy,11; trabectedin + PLD, 10; non platinum-single agent, 21). Thirty-one of the 32 patients with PFI >12 months received chemotherapy (platinum-based chemotherapy, 23; trabectedin + PLD, 3; non platinum - single agent, 5). An objective response was found in 13.0%, 26.2% and 41.9 % of the patients with PFI <6 months, 6-12 months, and >12 months (p= 0.03), respectively, and the corresponding median survivals after PARPi were 8.9 months, 17.5 months and 24.1 months (p= 0.002), respectively.
    CONCLUSION: Before the PARPi era, some randomized trials on platinum rechallenge in patients with recurrent EOC after more than 6 months from the last platinum cycle have shown response rates ranging from 47.2% to 66%. Response rates to chemotherapy for progression after PARPi appear to be lower than those expected according to PFI.
    Keywords:  Homologous recombination; PARP inhibitors; chemotherapy; epithelial ovarian cancer; recurrence
  2. Cell Death Differ. 2022 Mar 31.
      Mutation of the TP53 tumor suppressor gene is the most common genetic alteration in cancer, and almost 1000 alleles have been identified in human tumors. While virtually all TP53 mutations are thought to compromise wild type p53 activity, the prevalence and recurrence of missense TP53 alleles has motivated countless research studies aimed at understanding the function of the resulting mutant p53 protein. The data from these studies support three distinct, but perhaps not necessarily mutually exclusive, mechanisms for how different p53 mutants impact cancer: first, they lose the ability to execute wild type p53 functions to varying degrees; second, they act as a dominant negative (DN) inhibitor of wild type p53 tumor-suppressive programs; and third, they may gain oncogenic functions that go beyond mere p53 inactivation. Of these possibilities, the gain of function (GOF) hypothesis is the most controversial, in part due to the dizzying array of biological functions that have been attributed to different mutant p53 proteins. Herein we discuss the current state of understanding of TP53 allele variation in cancer and recent reports that both support and challenge the p53 GOF model. In these studies and others, researchers are turning to more systematic approaches to profile TP53 mutations, which may ultimately determine once and for all how different TP53 mutations act as cancer drivers and whether tumors harboring distinct mutations are phenotypically unique. From a clinical perspective, such information could lead to new therapeutic approaches targeting the effects of different TP53 alleles and/or better sub-stratification of patients harboring TP53 mutant cancers.