bims-ovdlit Biomed News
on Ovarian cancer: early diagnosis, liquid biopsy and therapy
Issue of 2022‒02‒27
three papers selected by
Lara Paracchini
Humanitas Research

  1. Case Rep Womens Health. 2022 Apr;34 e00395
      Low-grade serous ovarian cancer (LGSOC) poses a specific clinical challenge due to advanced presentation at diagnosis and the lack of effective systemic treatments. The aim of this study was to use a precision medicine approach to identify clinically actionable mutations in a patient with recurrent LGSOC. Primary, metastatic and recurrence tissue, and blood samples were collected from a stage IV LGSOC patient. Single-gene testing for clinically actionable mutations (BRAF V600, KRAS and NRAS) and subsequent whole-exome sequencing (WES) were performed. Droplet digital PCR was used to evaluate the presence of an identified BRAF D594G mutation in the matched plasma cell-free DNA (cfDNA). No clinically actionable mutations were identified using single-gene testing. WES identified a BRAF D594G mutation in six of seven tumor samples. The patient was commenced on a MEK inhibitor, trametinib, but with minimal clinical response. A newly designed ddPCR assay detected the BRAF alteration in the matched tissues and liquid biopsy cfDNA. The identification and sensitive plasma detection of a common "druggable" target emphasises the impact of precision medicine on the management of rare tumors and its potential contribution to novel monitoring regimens in this field.
    Keywords:  Cell-free circulating DNA; Digital droplet PCR; Low-grade serous ovarian cancer; Next-generation sequencing; Targeted therapy
  2. Eur J Surg Oncol. 2022 Feb 18. pii: S0748-7983(22)00113-5. [Epub ahead of print]
      AIM: BRCA mutation carriers have a high lifetime risk of developing breast cancer (BC) and ovarian cancer (OC). Risk-reducing salpingo-oophorectomy (RRSO) has been shown to reduce OC risk. This meta-analysis was aim to analyze the effect of RRSO on the BC risk among BRCA1/2 mutation carriers.METHODS: Embase, PubMed, Web of Science, and Cochrane databases were searched for all studies investigating the effect of RRSO on BC risk. The pooled results were used to evaluate the association between RRSO and BC risk.
    RESULTS: This meta-analysis included 13,965 BRCA1 and 7,057 BRCA2 mutation carriers from 14 observational studies. The pooled results showed that RRSO lowered BC risk among BRCA1 mutation carriers [hazard ratio (HR) = 0.63, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.49-0.81, P < 0.01] and BRCA2 mutation carriers (HR = 0.51, 95% CI: 0.34-0.75, P < 0.01). RRSO reduced BC risk in younger women with BRCA1 mutation (HR = 0.48, 95% CI: 0.30-0.77, P < 0.01) and BRCA2 mutation (HR = 0.22, 95% CI: 0.08-0.65, P < 0.01). Analysis of the efficacy of RRSO at different time intervals after surgery showed a reduction of BC risk at <5 years after surgery in BRCA1 mutation carriers (HR = 0.60, 95% CI: 0.40-0.89, P = 0.01) and BRCA2 mutation carriers (HR = 0.42, 95% CI: 0.20-0.86, P = 0.02).
    CONCLUSIONS: RRSO is an effective way to reduce BC risk among women with BRCA1/2 mutation, especially in younger women. BRCA1/2 mutation carriers could benefit from RRSO in the immediate 5 years after surgery.
    Keywords:  BRCA1; BRCA2; Breast cancer risk; Risk-reducing salpingo-oophorectomy; meta-Analysis