bims-nocaut Biomed News
on Non-canonical autophagy
Issue of 2024‒04‒28
three papers selected by
Quentin Frenger, University of Strasbourg

  1. Int J Mol Sci. 2024 Apr 19. pii: 4493. [Epub ahead of print]25(8):
      Canonical autophagy is an evolutionarily conserved process that forms double-membrane structures and mediates the degradation of long-lived proteins (LLPs). Noncanonical autophagy (NCA) is an important alternative pathway involving the formation of microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3 (LC3)-positive structures that are independent of partial core autophagy proteins. NCA has been defined by the conjugation of ATG8s to single membranes (CASM). During canonical autophagy and NCA/CASM, LC3 undergoes a lipidation modification, and ATG16L1 is a crucial protein in this process. Previous studies have reported that the WDR domain of ATG16L1 is not necessary for canonical autophagy. However, our study found that WDR domain deficiency significantly impaired LLP degradation in basal conditions and slowed down LC3-II accumulation in canonical autophagy. We further demonstrated that the observed effect was due to a reduced interaction between ATG16L1 and FIP200/WIPI2, without affecting lysosome function or fusion. Furthermore, we also found that the WDR domain of ATG16L1 is crucial for chemical-induced NCA/CASM. The results showed that removing the WDR domain or introducing the K490A mutation in ATG16L1 significantly inhibited the NCA/CASM, which interrupted the V-ATPase-ATG16L1 axis. In conclusion, this study highlights the significance of the WDR domain of ATG16L1 for both canonical autophagy and NCA functions, improving our understanding of its role in autophagy.
    Keywords:  ATG16L1; WDR domain; canonical autophagy; noncanonical autophagy
  2. Life Sci. 2024 Apr 23. pii: S0024-3205(24)00243-1. [Epub ahead of print] 122653
      Autophagy is a cellular degradation system that recycles or degrades damaged organelles, viral particles, and aggregated proteins through the lysosomal pathway. Autophagy plays an indispensable role in cellular homeostasis and communication processes. An interesting aspect is that autophagy also mediates the secretion of cellular contents, a process known as secretory autophagy. Secretory autophagy differs from macroautophagy, which sequesters recruited proteins, organelles, or viral particles into autophagosomes and degrades these sequesters in lysosomes, while the secretory autophagy pathway participates in the extracellular export of cellular contents sequestered by autophagosomes through autophagy and endosomal modulators. Recent evidence reveals that secretory autophagy is pivotal in the occurrence and progression of diseases. In this review, we summarize the molecular mechanisms of secretory autophagy. Furthermore, we review the impact of secretory autophagy on diseases, including cancer, viral infectious diseases, neurodegenerative diseases, and cardiovascular diseases. Considering the pleiotropic actions of secretory autophagy on diseases, studying the mechanism of secretory autophagy may help to understand the relevant pathophysiological processes.
    Keywords:  Alzheimer's disease; Autophagy; COVID-19; Cancer; Secretory autophagy
  3. Front Immunol. 2024 ;15 1356369
      Autophagy is an intracellular process that targets various cargos for degradation, including members of the cGAS-STING signaling cascade. cGAS-STING senses cytosolic double-stranded DNA and triggers an innate immune response through type I interferons. Emerging evidence suggests that autophagy plays a crucial role in regulating and fine-tuning cGAS-STING signaling. Reciprocally, cGAS-STING pathway members can actively induce canonical as well as various non-canonical forms of autophagy, establishing a regulatory network of feedback mechanisms that alter both the cGAS-STING and the autophagic pathway. The crosstalk between autophagy and the cGAS-STING pathway impacts a wide variety of cellular processes such as protection against pathogenic infections as well as signaling in neurodegenerative disease, autoinflammatory disease and cancer. Here we provide a comprehensive overview of the mechanisms involved in autophagy and cGAS-STING signaling, with a specific focus on the interactions between the two pathways and their importance for cancer.
    Keywords:  autophagy; cGAS/STING signaling; cancer; innate immunity; radiotherapy