bims-nenemi Biomed News
on Neuroinflammation, neurodegeneration and mitochondria
Issue of 2022‒10‒02
eighteen papers selected by
Marco Tigano
Thomas Jefferson University

  1. Front Endocrinol (Lausanne). 2022 ;13 991632
      Beta-cell destruction in type 1 diabetes (T1D) results from the combined effect of inflammation and recurrent autoimmunity. Accumulating evidence suggests the engagement of cellular stress during the initial stage of the disease, preceding destruction and triggering immune cell infiltration. While the role of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) in this process has been largely described, the participation of the other cellular organelles, particularly the mitochondria which are central mediator for beta-cell survival and function, remains poorly investigated. Here, we have explored the contribution of ER stress, in activating type-I interferon signaling and innate immune cell recruitment. Using human beta-cell line EndoC-βH1 exposed to thapsigargin, we demonstrate that induction of cellular stress correlates with mitochondria dysfunction and a significant accumulation of cytosolic mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) that triggers neutrophils migration by an IL8-dependent mechanism. These results provide a novel mechanistic insight on how ER stress can cause insulitis and may ultimately facilitate the identification of potential targets to protect beta-cells against immune infiltration.
    Keywords:  ER stress; innate immunity; mitochondria; neutrophils; type 1 diabetes
  2. Front Cell Dev Biol. 2022 ;10 918691
      Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) functions critically depend on a suitable ATP supply to fuel ER chaperons and protein trafficking. A disruption of the ability of the ER to traffic and fold proteins leads to ER stress and the unfolded protein response (UPR). Using structured illumination super-resolution microscopy, we revealed increased stability and lifetime of mitochondrial associated ER membranes (MAM) during ER stress. The consequent increase of basal mitochondrial Ca2+ leads to increased TCA cycle activity and enhanced mitochondrial membrane potential, OXPHOS, and ATP generation during ER stress. Subsequently, OXPHOS derived ATP trafficking towards the ER was increased. We found that the increased lifetime and stability of MAMs during ER stress depended on the mitochondrial fusion protein Mitofusin2 (MFN2). Knockdown of MFN2 blunted mitochondrial Ca2+ effect during ER stress, switched mitochondrial F1FO-ATPase activity into reverse mode, and strongly reduced the ATP supply for the ER during ER stress. These findings suggest a critical role of MFN2-dependent MAM stability and lifetime during ER stress to compensate UPR by strengthening ER ATP supply by the mitochondria.
    Keywords:  ER stress; mitochondria; mitochondria-associated membranes (MAM); mitochondrial Ca2+; mitofusin 2
  3. Autophagy. 2022 Sep 28.
      Mitochondria rely on efficient protein import across their membranes for optimal function. We have shown that numerous mitochondrial stressors all converge on a common pathway disrupting this import efficiency. We identified a novel pathway involving NLRX1 and RRBP1 that responds to this import stress, resulting in LC3 lipidation, mitochondrial targeting and ultimate degradation. Furthermore, we demonstrated the relevance of this mitophagy axis in murine skeletal muscle following acute exercise. We propose that mitochondrial protein import stress is an underlying, common trigger for mitophagy, offering a novel avenue for therapeutic exploration and mechanistic insight.
    Keywords:  Autophagy; NLR; exercise; import; mitochondria; mitophagy; proteostasis
  4. Nat Commun. 2022 Sep 30. 13(1): 5750
      Canonical RNA processing in mammalian mitochondria is defined by tRNAs acting as recognition sites for nucleases to release flanking transcripts. The relevant factors, their structures, and mechanism are well described, but not all mitochondrial transcripts are punctuated by tRNAs, and their mode of processing has remained unsolved. Using Drosophila and mouse models, we demonstrate that non-canonical processing results in the formation of 3' phosphates, and that phosphatase activity by the carbon catabolite repressor 4 domain-containing family member ANGEL2 is required for their hydrolysis. Furthermore, our data suggest that members of the FAST kinase domain-containing protein family are responsible for these 3' phosphates. Our results therefore propose a mechanism for non-canonical RNA processing in metazoan mitochondria, by identifying the role of ANGEL2.
  5. Eur J Neurosci. 2022 Sep 24.
      Myalgic Encephalomyelitis/Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (ME/CFS) is a debilitating disease that presents with fatigue, sleep disturbances, malaise, and cognitive problems. The pathogenesis of ME/CFS is presently unknown and serum levels of potential biomarkers have been inconsistent. Here we show that mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) associated with serum exosomes, is increased in ME/CFS patients only after exercise. Moreover, exosomes isolated from patients with ME/CFS stimulate significant release of IL-1β from cultured human microglia. These results provide evidence that activation of microglia by serum-derived exosomes may serve as a potential novel pathogenetic factor and target for treatment of ME/CFS.
    Keywords:  Allergies; cytokines; exosomes; extracellular vesicles; inflammation; mitochondrial DNA; myalgic encephalomyelitis/chronic fatigue syndrome; neuropeptides
  6. Nature. 2022 Sep 28.
      CD4+ T cell differentiation requires metabolic reprogramming to fulfil the bioenergetic demands of proliferation and effector function, and enforce specific transcriptional programmes1-3. Mitochondrial membrane dynamics sustains mitochondrial processes4, including respiration and tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle metabolism5, but whether mitochondrial membrane remodelling orchestrates CD4+ T cell differentiation remains unclear. Here we show that unlike other CD4+ T cell subsets, T helper 17 (TH17) cells have fused mitochondria with tight cristae. T cell-specific deletion of optic atrophy 1 (OPA1), which regulates inner mitochondrial membrane fusion and cristae morphology6, revealed that TH17 cells require OPA1 for its control of the TCA cycle, rather than respiration. OPA1 deletion amplifies glutamine oxidation, leading to impaired NADH/NAD+ balance and accumulation of TCA cycle metabolites and 2-hydroxyglutarate-a metabolite that influences the epigenetic landscape5,7. Our multi-omics approach revealed that the serine/threonine kinase liver-associated kinase B1 (LKB1) couples mitochondrial function to cytokine expression in TH17 cells by regulating TCA cycle metabolism and transcriptional remodelling. Mitochondrial membrane disruption activates LKB1, which restrains IL-17 expression. LKB1 deletion restores IL-17 expression in TH17 cells with disrupted mitochondrial membranes, rectifying aberrant TCA cycle glutamine flux, balancing NADH/NAD+ and preventing 2-hydroxyglutarate production from the promiscuous activity of the serine biosynthesis enzyme phosphoglycerate dehydrogenase (PHGDH). These findings identify OPA1 as a major determinant of TH17 cell function, and uncover LKB1 as a sensor linking mitochondrial cues to effector programmes in TH17 cells.
  7. Pharmacol Res. 2022 Sep 26. pii: S1043-6618(22)00412-1. [Epub ahead of print] 106466
      Until recently it was thought that most humans only harbor one type of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA), however, deep sequencing and single-cell analysis has shown the converse - that mixed populations of mtDNA (heteroplasmy) are the norm. This is important because heteroplasmy levels can change dramatically during transmission in the female germ line, leading to high levels causing severe mitochondrial diseases. There is also emerging evidence that low level mtDNA mutations contribute to common late onset diseases such as neurodegenerative disorders and cardiometabolic diseases because the inherited mutation levels can change within developing organs and non-dividing cells over time. Initial predictions suggested that the segregation of mtDNA heteroplasmy was largely stochastic, with an equal tendency for levels to increase or decrease. However, transgenic animal work and single-cell analysis have shown this not to be the case during germ-line transmission and in somatic tissues during life. Mutation levels in specific mtDNA regions can increase or decrease in different contexts and the underlying molecular mechanisms are starting to be unraveled. In this review we provide a synthesis of recent literature on the mechanisms of selection for and against mtDNA variants. We identify the most pertinent gaps in our understanding and suggest ways these could be addressed using state of the art techniques.
    Keywords:  mitochondria; mitophagy; mtDNA; mutant; selection; selfish
  8. Cell Death Differ. 2022 Sep 28.
      Intrinsic apoptosis is principally governed by the BCL-2 family of proteins, but some non-BCL-2 proteins are also critical to control this process. To identify novel apoptosis regulators, we performed a genome-wide CRISPR-Cas9 library screen, and it identified the mitochondrial E3 ubiquitin ligase MARCHF5/MITOL/RNF153 as an important regulator of BAK apoptotic function. Deleting MARCHF5 in diverse cell lines dependent on BAK conferred profound resistance to BH3-mimetic drugs. The loss of MARCHF5 or its E3 ubiquitin ligase activity surprisingly drove BAK to adopt an activated conformation, with resistance to BH3-mimetics afforded by the formation of inhibitory complexes with pro-survival proteins MCL-1 and BCL-XL. Importantly, these changes to BAK conformation and pro-survival association occurred independently of BH3-only proteins and influence on pro-survival proteins. This study identifies a new mechanism by which MARCHF5 regulates apoptotic cell death by restraining BAK activating conformation change and provides new insight into how cancer cells respond to BH3-mimetic drugs. These data also highlight the emerging role of ubiquitin signalling in apoptosis that may be exploited therapeutically.
  9. Nat Commun. 2022 Sep 26. 13(1): 5658
      ER-mitochondrial contact sites (EMCSs) are important for mitochondrial function. Here, we have identified a EMCS complex, comprising a family of uncharacterised mitochondrial outer membrane proteins, TRB1, TRB2, and the ER protein, VAP27-1. In Arabidopsis, there are three TraB family isoforms and the trb1/trb2 double mutant exhibits abnormal mitochondrial morphology, strong starch accumulation, and impaired energy metabolism, indicating that these proteins are essential for normal mitochondrial function. Moreover, TRB1 and TRB2 proteins also interact with ATG8 in order to regulate mitochondrial degradation (mitophagy). The turnover of depolarised mitochondria is significantly reduced in both trb1/trb2 and VAP27 mutants (vap27-1,3,4,6) under mitochondrial stress conditions, with an increased population of dysfunctional mitochondria present in the cytoplasm. Consequently, plant recovery after stress is significantly perturbed, suggesting that TRB1-regulated mitophagy and ER-mitochondrial interaction are two closely related processes. Taken together, we ascribe a dual role to TraB family proteins which are component of the EMCS complex in eukaryotes, regulating both interaction of the mitochondria to the ER and mitophagy.
  10. Front Mol Neurosci. 2022 ;15 974480
      Mitochondria are essential organelles for neuronal function and cell survival. Besides the well-known bioenergetics, additional mitochondrial roles in calcium signaling, lipid biogenesis, regulation of reactive oxygen species, and apoptosis are pivotal in diverse cellular processes. The mitochondrial proteome encompasses about 1,500 proteins encoded by both the nuclear DNA and the maternally inherited mitochondrial DNA. Mutations in the nuclear or mitochondrial genome, or combinations of both, can result in mitochondrial protein deficiencies and mitochondrial malfunction. Therefore, mitochondrial quality control by proteins involved in various surveillance mechanisms is critical for neuronal integrity and viability. Abnormal proteins involved in mitochondrial bioenergetics, dynamics, mitophagy, import machinery, ion channels, and mitochondrial DNA maintenance have been linked to the pathogenesis of a number of neurological diseases. The goal of this review is to give an overview of these pathways and to summarize the interconnections between mitochondrial protein dysfunction and neurological diseases.
    Keywords:  mitochondrial bioenergetics; mitochondrial dynamics; mitochondrial import machinery; mitochondrial proteins; mitophagy; mtDNA maintenance; neurological diseases; pathogenesis
  11. Exp Ther Med. 2022 Nov;24(5): 662
      The mitochondrial protein sirtuin 3 (SIRT3) can counteract cell damage caused by oxidative stress and inflammation, and contribute to cell survival primarily by improving mitochondrial function. However, the effects of SIRT3 in dopaminergic neuronal cells (DACs) remain unclear. In our previous studies, microglia activation-associated cytotoxicity was observed to promote the apoptosis of DACs, along with the decrease of SIRT3 expression. The aim of the present study was to explore the potential neuroprotective effect of SIRT3 expression against dopaminergic neuron injury caused by microglia activation, and clarify its possible mechanisms. SIRT3 overexpression in DACs reduced the production of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS), cell apoptosis rate, mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm) depolarization, opening of mitochondrial permeability transition pore (mPTP) and cyclophilin D (CypD) protein level, and promoted cell cycle progression. However, SIRT3 siRNA-mediated knockdown further aggravated microglia activation-mediated cytotoxicity, including ROS accumulation, increased cell apoptosis and mPTP opening, elevated the CypD level, enhanced mitochondrial ΔΨm depolarization, concomitant to cell cycle arrest at G0/G1 phase. The mechanisms of SIRT3 mitigated microglia activation-induced DAC dysfunction, which included decreased mPTP opening and Bax/Bcl-2 ratio, inhibition of mitochondrial cytochrome c release to the cytoplasm, reduced caspase-3/9 activity, increased LC3II/LC3I and beclin-1 protein expression levels, and decreased nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain, leucine rich repeat and pyrin domain-containing protein 3 (NLRP3), caspase-1, IL-1β and IL-18 protein expression. In conclusion, these results indicated that SIRT3 expression attenuated cell damage caused by microglia activation through the mitochondrial apoptosis pathway in DACs. The mitophagy-NLRP3 inflammasome pathway may also be associated with this neuroprotection. These findings may provide new intervention targets for the survival of dopaminergic neurons and the prevention and treatment of Parkinson's disease.
    Keywords:  apoptosis; dopaminergic neuronal cell; microglia activation; mitophagy; sirtuin 3
  12. Toxicol Rep. 2022 ;9 1566-1573
      Previous studies have shown that inhibition or depletion of N-acetyltransferase 1 (NAT1) in breast cancer cell lines leads to growth retardation both in vitro and in vivo, suggesting that NAT1 contributes to rapid growth of breast cancer cells. To understand molecular and cellular processes that NAT1 contributes to and generate novel hypotheses in regard to NAT1's role in breast cancer, we performed an unbiased analysis of proteomes of parental MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells and two separate NAT1 knockout (KO) cell lines. Among 4890 proteins identified, 737 proteins were found significantly (p < 0.01) upregulated, and 651 proteins were significantly (p < 0.01) downregulated in both NAT1 KO cell lines. We performed enrichment analyses to identify Gene Ontology biological processes, molecular functions, and cellular components that were enriched in each data set. Among the proteins upregulated in NAT1 KO cells, pathways associated with MHC (major histocompatibility complex) I-mediated antigen presentation were significantly enriched. This raises an interesting and new hypothesis that upregulation of NAT1 in breast cancer cells may aid them evade immune detection. Multiple pathways involved in mitochondrial functions were collectively downregulated in NAT1 KO cells, including multiple subunits of mitochondrial ATP synthase (Complex V of the electron transport chain). This was accompanied by a reduction in cell cycle-associated proteins and an increase in pro-apoptotic pathways in NAT1 KO cells, consistent with reported observations that NAT1 KO cells exhibit a slower growth rate both in vitro and in vivo. Thus, mitochondrial dysfunction in NAT1 KO cells likely contributes to growth retardation.
    Keywords:  ATP synthase; Antigen presentation; Cell cycle; MHC-I, major histocompatibility complex I; Mitochondria; NAT1, arylamine N-acetyltransferase 1; Proteomics
  13. Cell Mol Life Sci. 2022 Sep 28. 79(10): 531
      In response to infection or sterile insults, inflammatory programmed cell death is an essential component of the innate immune response to remove infected or damaged cells. PANoptosis is a unique innate immune inflammatory cell death pathway regulated by multifaceted macromolecular complexes called PANoptosomes, which integrate components from other cell death pathways. Growing evidence shows that PANoptosis can be triggered in many physiological conditions, including viral and bacterial infections, cytokine storms, and cancers. However, PANoptosomes at the single cell level have not yet been fully characterized. Initial investigations have suggested that key pyroptotic, apoptotic, and necroptotic molecules including the inflammasome adaptor protein ASC, apoptotic caspase-8 (CASP8), and necroptotic RIPK3 are conserved components of PANoptosomes. Here, we optimized an immunofluorescence procedure to probe the highly dynamic multiprotein PANoptosome complexes across various innate immune cell death-inducing conditions. We first identified and validated antibodies to stain endogenous mouse ASC, CASP8, and RIPK3, without residual staining in the respective knockout cells. We then assessed the formation of PANoptosomes across innate immune cell death-inducing conditions by monitoring the colocalization of ASC with CASP8 and/or RIPK3. Finally, we established an expansion microscopy procedure using these validated antibodies to image the organization of ASC, CASP8, and RIPK3 within the PANoptosome. This optimized protocol, which can be easily adapted to study other multiprotein complexes and other cell death triggers, provides confirmation of PANoptosome assembly in individual cells and forms the foundation for a deeper molecular understanding of the PANoptosome complex and PANoptosis to facilitate therapeutic targeting.
    Keywords:  AIM2; ASC; Apoptosis; Caspase-1; Caspase-8; Cell death; HSV-1; IFN; Infection; Inflammasome; Inflammation; Influenza; Innate immunity; KPT-330; Method; Microscopy; NLRP3; Necroptosis; PANoptosis; PANoptosome; Protocol; Pyroptosis; RIPK3; ZBP1
  14. PLoS Genet. 2022 Sep 27. 18(9): e1010430
      Partial loss-of-function mutations in glycosylation pathways underlie a set of rare diseases called Congenital Disorders of Glycosylation (CDGs). In particular, DPAGT1-CDG is caused by mutations in the gene encoding the first step in N-glycosylation, DPAGT1, and this disorder currently lacks effective therapies. To identify potential therapeutic targets for DPAGT1-CDG, we performed CRISPR knockout screens in Drosophila cells for genes associated with better survival and glycoprotein levels under DPAGT1 inhibition. We identified hundreds of candidate genes that may be of therapeutic benefit. Intriguingly, inhibition of the mannosyltransferase Dpm1, or its downstream glycosylation pathways, could rescue two in vivo models of DPAGT1 inhibition and ER stress, even though impairment of these pathways alone usually causes CDGs. While both in vivo models ostensibly cause cellular stress (through DPAGT1 inhibition or a misfolded protein), we found a novel difference in fructose metabolism that may indicate glycolysis as a modulator of DPAGT1-CDG. Our results provide new therapeutic targets for DPAGT1-CDG, include the unique finding of Dpm1-related pathways rescuing DPAGT1 inhibition, and reveal a novel interaction between fructose metabolism and ER stress.
  15. Biomed Res Int. 2022 ;2022 6459585
      Oxidative stress is an imbalance between free radicals and the antioxidant system causing overgeneration of free radicals (oxygen-containing molecules) ultimately leading to oxidative damage in terms of lipid peroxidation, protein denaturation, and DNA mutation. Oxidative stress can activate autophagy to alleviate oxidative damage and maintain normal physiological activities of cells by degrading damaged organelles or local cytoplasm. When oxidative stress is not eliminated by autophagy, it activates the apoptosis cascade. This review provides a brief summary of mitochondrial-endoplasmic reticulum communication-mediated oxidative stress and autophagy. Mitochondria and endoplasmic reticulum being important organelles in cells are directly or indirectly connected to each other through mitochondria-associated endoplasmic reticulum membranes and jointly regulate oxidative stress and autophagy. The reactive oxygen species (ROS) produced by the mitochondrial respiratory chain are the main inducers of oxidative stress. Damaged mitochondria can be effectively cleared by the process of mitophagy mediated by PINK1/parkin pathway, Nix/BNIP3 pathways, and FUNDC1 pathway, avoiding excessive ROS production. However, the mechanism of mitochondrial-endoplasmic reticulum communication in the regulation of oxidative stress and autophagy is rarely known. For this reason, this review explores the mutual connection of mitochondria and endoplasmic reticulum in mediating oxidative stress and autophagy through ROS and Ca2+ and aims to provide part of the theoretical basis for alleviating oxidative stress through autophagy mediated by mitochondrial-endoplasmic reticulum communication.
  16. Mol Ther Oncolytics. 2022 Sep 15. 26 413-428
      Tripartite motif 22 (TRIM22) is an agonist of nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) that plays an important role in the proliferation and drug sensitivity of glioblastoma (GBM). However, the molecular mechanism underlying the protein network between TRIM22 and nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) in GBM remains unclear. Here, we found that knockout of TRIM22 effectively inhibited tumor proliferation and increased the sensitivity of GBM cells to temozolomide (TMZ) in vivo and in vitro. Moreover, TRIM22 forms a complex with cytosolic purine 5-nucleotidase (NT5C2) in GBM and regulates the ubiquitination of retinoic acid-inducible gene-I (RIG-I). TRIM22 promotes the K63-linked ubiquitination of RIG-I, while NT5C2 is responsible for K48-linked ubiquitination. This regulation directly affects the RIG-I/NF-κB/cell division cycle and apoptosis regulator protein 1 (CCAR1) signaling axis. Ubiquitin modification inhibitor of RIG-I restores the inhibition of tumor growth induced by TRIM22 knockout. The follow-up results showed that compared with patients with high TRIM22 expression, patients with low TRIM22 expression had a longer survival time and were more sensitive to treatment with TMZ. Our results revealed that the TRIM22-NT5C2 complex orchestrates the proliferation of GBM and benefits of TMZ through post-translational modification of RIG-I and the regulation of the RIG-I/NF-κB/CCAR1 pathway and is a promising target for single-pathway multi-target therapy.
    Keywords:  NT5C2; RIG-I pathway; TRIM22; glioblastoma; proliferation