bims-nenemi Biomed News
on Neuroinflammation, neurodegeneration and mitochondria
Issue of 2022‒06‒26
eight papers selected by
Marco Tigano
Thomas Jefferson University

  1. Oncogene. 2022 Jun 24.
      The dynamics of mitochondrial biogenesis regulation is critical in maintaining cellular homeostasis for immune regulation and tumor prevention. Here, we report that mitochondrial biogenesis disruption through TFAM reduction significantly impairs mitochondrial function, induces autophagy, and promotes esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) growth. We found that TFAM protein reduction promotes mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) release into the cytosol, induces cytosolic mtDNA stress, subsequently activates the cGAS-STING signaling pathway, thereby stimulating autophagy and ESCC growth. STING depletion or mtDNA degradation by DNase I abrogates mtDNA stress response, attenuates autophagy, and decreases the growth of TFAM depleted cells. In addition, autophagy inhibitor also ameliorates mitochondrial dysfunction-induced activation of the cGAS-STING signaling pathway and ESCC growth. In conclusion, our results indicate that mtDNA stress induced by mitochondria biogenesis perturbation activates the cGAS-STING pathway and autophagy to promote ESCC growth, revealing an underappreciated therapeutic strategy for ESCC.
  2. FEBS J. 2022 Jun 22.
      In accordance with the endosymbiotic theory, mitochondrial components bear characteristic prokaryotic signatures which act as immunomodulatory molecules when released into the extramitochondrial compartment. These endogenous immune triggers, called mitochondrial Damage Associated Molecular Patterns (mtDAMPs) have been implicated in the pathogenesis of various diseases, yet their role remains largely unexplored. In this review, we summarize the available literature on mtDAMPs in diseases, with a special focus on respiratory diseases. We highlight the need to bolster mtDAMP research using a multipronged approach, to study their effect on specific cell types, receptors and machinery in pathologies. We emphasise the lacunae in the current understanding of mtDAMPs, particularly in their cellular release as well as the chemical modifications they undergo. Finally, we conclude by proposing additional effects of mtDAMPs in diseases, specifically their role in modulating the immune system.
    Keywords:  ATP; Cardiolipin; Cytochrome c (Cyt c); Inflammation; N-Formyl peptides (NFP); acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS); immunometabolism; mitochondrial DAMPs; mtDNA
  3. BMB Rep. 2022 Jun 21. pii: 5642. [Epub ahead of print]
      PTEN-induced putative kinase 1 (PINK1) is a serine/threonine kinase that phosphorylates several substrates and exerts neuroprotective effects against stress-induced apoptotic cell death. Mutations in PINK1 have been linked to autosomal recessive forms of Parkinson's disease (PD). Mitophagy is a type of autophagy that selectively promotes mitochondrial turnover and prevents the accumulation of dysfunctional mitochondria to maintain cellular homeostasis. Toll-interacting protein (Tollip) was initially identified as a negative regulator of IL-1β receptor signaling, suppressing inflammatory TLR signaling cascades. Recently, Tollip has been reported to play a role in autophagy and is implicated in neurodegeneration. In this study, we determined whether Tollip was functionally linked to PINK1-mediated mitophagy. Our results demonstrated that Tollip promoted the mitochondrial processing of PINK1 and altered the localization of PINK1, predominantly to the cytosol. This action was attributed to increased binding of PINK1 to mitochondrial processing peptidase β (MPPβ) and the subsequent increase in MPPβ-mediated mitochondrial PINK1 cleavage. Furthermore, Tollip suppressed mitophagy following carbonyl cyanide m-chlorophenylhydrazone-induced mitochondrial dysfunction. These findings suggest that Tollip inhibits mitophagy via the PINK1/parkin pathway upon mitochondrial damage, leading to the blockade of PINK1-mediated neuroprotection.
  4. Cell Death Differ. 2022 Jun 20.
      The ability of mitochondria to buffer a rapid rise in cytosolic Ca2+ is a hallmark of proper cell homeostasis. Here, we employed m-3M3FBS, a putative phospholipase C (PLC) agonist, to explore the relationships between intracellular Ca2+ imbalance, mitochondrial physiology, and cell death. m-3M3FBS induced a potent dose-dependent Ca2+ release from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), followed by a rise in intra-mitochondrial Ca2+. When the latter exceeded the organelle buffering capacity, an abrupt mitochondrial inner membrane permeabilization (MIMP) occurred, releasing matrix contents into the cytosol. MIMP was followed by cell death that was independent of Bcl-2 family members and inhibitable by the intracellular Ca2+ chelator BAPTA-AM. Cyclosporin A (CsA), capable of blocking the mitochondrial permeability transition (MPT), completely prevented cell death induced by m-3M3FBS. However, CsA acted upstream of mitochondria by preventing Ca2+ release from ER stores. Therefore, loss of Ca2+ intracellular balance and mitochondrial Ca2+ overload followed by MIMP induced a cell death process that is distinct from Bcl-2 family-regulated mitochondrial outer membrane permeabilization (MOMP). Further, the inhibition of cell death by CsA or its analogues can be independent of effects on the MPT.
  5. Cells. 2022 Jun 11. pii: 1894. [Epub ahead of print]11(12):
      The receptor-interacting protein kinase 3 (RIP3) has been reported to regulate programmed necrosis-necroptosis forms of cell death with important functions in inflammation. We investigated whether RIP3 translocates into mitochondria in response to renal ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) to interact with inner mitochondrial protein (Mitofilin) and promote mtDNA release into the cytosol. We found that release of mtDNA activates the cGAS-STING pathway, leading to increased nuclear transcription of pro-inflammatory markers that exacerbate renal I/R injury. Monolateral C57/6N and RIP3-/- mice kidneys were subjected to 60 min of ischemia followed by either 12, 24, or 48 h of reperfusion. In WT mice, we found that renal I/R injury increased RIP3 levels, as well as its translocation into mitochondria. We observed that RIP3 interacts with Mitofilin, likely promoting its degradation, resulting in increased mitochondria damage and mtDNA release, activation of the cGAS-STING-p65 pathway, and increased transcription of pro-inflammatory markers. All of these effects observed in WT mice were decreased in RIP3-/- mice. In HK-2, RIP3 overexpression or Mitofilin knockdown increased cell death by activating the cGAS-STING-p65 pathway. Together, this study point to an important role of the RIP3-Mitofilin axis in the initiation and development of renal I/R injury.
    Keywords:  acute kidney injury (AKI); cGAS–STING–p65 pathway; inflammation; inner mitochondrial membrane protein (immt; mitochondrial dysfunction; mitochondrial structural integrity and function; mitofilin); mtDNA release; receptor-interacting protein kinase 3 (RIP3)
  6. Redox Biol. 2022 Jun 15. pii: S2213-2317(22)00139-2. [Epub ahead of print]54 102367
      Aberrant pro-inflammatory activation of Kupffer cells (KCs) is strongly involved in the pathogenesis of septic liver injury. Recent evidence indicates the crucial roles of excessive stimulator of interferon genes (STING) signaling activation during sepsis. However, the role of STING signaling in septic liver injury remains unclear. In this study, we demonstrated that STING signaling was markedly activated in KCs isolated from wild type mice after lipopolysaccharide (LPS) treatment. STING deficiency effectively protected liver function, attenuated systemic inflammatory response and decreased mortality in LPS-treated mice, which were aggravated by STING agonist (DMXAA). Importantly, STING signaling activation in KCs contributed to LPS-induced liver injury through promoting hepatocyte death. Mechanistically, STING signaling could be activated by release of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) through dynamin-related protein 1 (DRP1)-dependent mitochondrial fission in LPS-treated KCs. Additionally, LPS stimulation enhanced DRP1-dependent mitochondrial ROS production, which promoted the leak of mtDNA into the cytosol and subsequent STING signaling activation in KCs. The in vivo experiments showed that pharmacological inhibition of DRP1 with Mdivi-1 partially prevented the activation of STING signaling in KCs isolated from LPS-challenged mice, as well as alleviated liver injury and inhibited systemic inflammatory response. In summary, our study comprehensively confirmed that STING signaling senses the DRP1-dependent release of mtDNA in KCs and its activation might play a key role in LPS-induced liver injury, which offers new sights and therapeutic targets for management of septic liver injury.
    Keywords:  DRP1; Kupffer cell; LPS; Liver injury; STING; mtDNA
  7. Int J Mol Sci. 2022 Jun 15. pii: 6687. [Epub ahead of print]23(12):
      The aim of this study was to determine the role of retrograde signaling (mitochondria to nucleus) in MCF7 breast cancer cells. Therefore, in the present study, MCF7-H and MCF7-J cybrids were produced using the mitochondria from the same H and J individuals that were already used in our non-diseased retinal pigment epithelium (ARPE19) cybrids. MCF7 cybrids were treated with cisplatin and analyzed for cell viability, mitochondrial membrane potential, ROS, and expression levels of genes associated with the cGAS-STING and cancer-related pathways. Results showed that unlike the ARPE19-H and ARPE19-J cybrids, the untreated MCF7-H and MCF7-J cybrids had similar levels of ATP, lactate, and OCR: ECAR ratios. After cisplatin treatment, MCF7-H and MCF7-J cybrids showed similar (a) decreases in cell viability and ROS levels; (b) upregulation of ABCC1, BRCA1 and CDKN1A/P21; and (c) downregulation of EGFR. Cisplatin-treated ARPE19-H and ARPE19-J cybrids showed increased expression of six cGAS-STING pathway genes, while two were increased for MCF7-J cybrids. In summary, the ARPE19-H and ARPE19-J cybrids behave differentially from each other with or without cisplatin. In contrast, the MCF7-H and MCF7-J cybrids had identical metabolic/bioenergetic profiles and cisplatin responses. Our findings suggest that cancer cell nuclei might have a diminished ability to respond to the modulating signaling of the mtDNA that occurs via the cGAS-STING pathway.
    Keywords:  cGAS-STING pathway; cybrids; mitochondria
  8. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2022 Jun 28. 119(26): e2123247119
      Mitochondria, a highly metabolically active organelle, have been shown to play an essential role in regulating innate immune function. Mitochondrial Ca2+ uptake via the mitochondrial Ca2+ uniporter (MCU) is an essential process regulating mitochondrial metabolism by targeting key enzymes involved in the tricarboxylic acid cycle (TCA). Accumulative evidence suggests MCU-dependent mitochondrial Ca2+ signaling may bridge the metabolic reprogramming and regulation of immune cell function. However, the mechanism by which MCU regulates inflammation and its related disease remains elusive. Here we report a critical role of MCU in promoting phagocytosis-dependent activation of NLRP3 (nucleotide-binding domain, leucine-rich repeat containing family, pyrin domain-containing 3) inflammasome by inhibiting phagolysosomal membrane repair. Myeloid deletion of MCU (McuΔmye) resulted in an attenuated phagolysosomal rupture, leading to decreased caspase-1 cleavage and interleukin (IL)-1β release, in response to silica or alum challenge. In contrast, other inflammasome agonists such as adenosine triphosphate (ATP), nigericin, poly(dA:dT), and flagellin induced normal IL-1β release in McuΔmye macrophages. Mechanistically, we demonstrated that decreased NLRP3 inflammasome activation in McuΔmye macrophages was caused by improved phagolysosomal membrane repair mediated by ESCRT (endosomal sorting complex required for transport)-III complex. Furthermore, McuΔmye mice showed a pronounced decrease in immune cell recruitment and IL-1β production in alum-induced peritonitis, a typical IL-1-dependent inflammation model. In sum, our results identify a function of MCU in promoting phagocytosis-dependent NLRP3 inflammatory response via an ESCRT-mediated phagolysosomal membrane repair mechanism.
    Keywords:  ESCRT; MCU; inflammasome; phagosome