bims-nenemi Biomed News
on Neuroinflammation, neurodegeneration and mitochondria
Issue of 2021‒10‒17
twenty papers selected by
Marco Tigano
Thomas Jefferson University

  1. Front Cell Dev Biol. 2021 ;9 715923
      Several studies reported that mitochondrial stress induces cytosolic proteostasis. How mitochondrial stress activates proteostasis in the cytosol remains unclear. However, the cross-talk between the mitochondria and cytosolic proteostasis has far reaching implications for treatment of proteopathies including neurodegenerative diseases. This possibility appears within reach since selected drugs have begun to emerge as being able to stimulate mitochondrial-mediated cytosolic proteostasis. In this review, we focus on studies describing how mitochondrial stress activates proteostasis in the cytosol across multiple model organisms. A model is proposed linking mitochondrial-mediated regulation of cytosolic translation, folding capacity, ubiquitination, and proteasome degradation and autophagy as a multi layered control of cytosolic proteostasis that overlaps with the integrated stress response (ISR) and the mitochondrial unfolded protein response (UPRmt). By analogy to the conductor in an orchestra managing multiple instrumental sections into a dynamically integrated musical piece, the cross-talk between these signaling cascades places the mitochondria as a major conductor of cellular integrity.
    Keywords:  estrogen receptor alpha; heat shock; mitochondria; mitochondrial UPR; mitochondrial integrated stress response; proteasome; translation
  2. PLoS Pathog. 2021 Oct;17(10): e1009841
      In general, in mammalian cells, cytosolic DNA viruses are sensed by cyclic GMP-AMP synthase (cGAS), and RNA viruses are recognized by retinoic acid-inducible gene I (RIG-I)-like receptors, triggering a series of downstream innate antiviral signaling steps in the host. We previously reported that measles virus (MeV), which possesses an RNA genome, induces rapid antiviral responses, followed by comprehensive downregulation of host gene expression in epithelial cells. Interestingly, gene ontology analysis indicated that genes encoding mitochondrial proteins are enriched among the list of downregulated genes. To evaluate mitochondrial stress after MeV infection, we first observed the mitochondrial morphology of infected cells and found that significantly elongated mitochondrial networks with a hyperfused phenotype were formed. In addition, an increased amount of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) in the cytosol was detected during progression of infection. Based on these results, we show that cytosolic mtDNA released from hyperfused mitochondria during MeV infection is captured by cGAS and causes consequent priming of the DNA sensing pathway in addition to canonical RNA sensing. We also ascertained the contribution of cGAS to the in vivo pathogenicity of MeV. In addition, we found that other viruses that induce downregulation of mitochondrial biogenesis as seen for MeV cause similar mitochondrial hyperfusion and cytosolic mtDNA-priming antiviral responses. These findings indicate that the mtDNA-activated cGAS pathway is critical for full innate control of certain viruses, including RNA viruses that cause mitochondrial stress.
  3. Front Mol Neurosci. 2021 ;14 730604
      As mitochondrial dysfunction has increasingly been implicated in neurological diseases, much of the investigation focuses on the response of the mitochondria. It appears that mitochondria can respond to external stimuli speedy fast, in seconds. Understanding how mitochondria sense the signal and communicate with cytosolic pathways are keys to understand mitochondrial regulation in diseases or in response to trauma. It was not until recently that a novel mitochondrial protein, phosphoglycerate mutase family member 5 (PGAM5) has emerged to be a new regulator of mitochondrial homeostasis. Although controversial results reveal beneficial as well as detrimental roles of PGAM5 in cancers, these findings also suggest PGAM5 may have diverse regulation on cellular physiology. Roles of PGAM5 in neuronal tissues remain to be uncovered. This review discusses current knowledge of PGAM5 in neurological diseases and provides future perspectives.
    Keywords:  PGAM5; mitochondrial dynamics; mitochondrial homeostasis; mitophagy; neurological diseases
  4. Trends Immunol. 2021 Oct 09. pii: S1471-4906(21)00204-0. [Epub ahead of print]
      ADAR1 edits adenosines to inosines in cellular double-stranded (ds)RNA, thereby preventing aberrant activation of antiviral dsRNA sensors, as well as interferon (IFN) induction in Aicardi-Goutières syndrome (AGS) encephalopathy. Recently, Nakahama et al., Tang et al., Maurano et al., and de Reuver et al. demonstrated that Adar1 Zα domain-mutant mice show aberrant MDA5 and PKR activation, developing encephalopathies; short Z-RNA patches within cellular dsRNA are unexpectedly crucial in causing aberrant antiviral responses.
  5. Arch Toxicol. 2021 Oct 13.
      Mitochondrial perturbation is a key event in chemical-induced organ toxicities that is incompletely understood. Here, we studied how electron transport chain (ETC) complex I, II, or III (CI, CII and CIII) inhibitors affect mitochondrial functionality, stress response activation, and cell viability using a combination of high-content imaging and TempO-Seq in HepG2 hepatocyte cells. CI and CIII inhibitors perturbed mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) and mitochondrial and cellular ATP levels in a concentration- and time-dependent fashion and, under conditions preventing a switch to glycolysis attenuated cell viability, whereas CII inhibitors had no effect. TempO-Seq analysis of changes in mRNA expression pointed to a shared cellular response to CI and CIII inhibition. First, to define specific ETC inhibition responses, a gene set responsive toward ETC inhibition (and not to genotoxic, oxidative, or endoplasmic reticulum stress) was identified using targeted TempO-Seq in HepG2. Silencing of one of these genes, NOS3, exacerbated the impact of CI and CIII inhibitors on cell viability, indicating its functional implication in cellular responses to mitochondrial stress. Then by monitoring dynamic responses to ETC inhibition using a HepG2 GFP reporter panel for different classes of stress response pathways and applying pathway and gene network analysis to TempO-Seq data, we looked for downstream cellular events of ETC inhibition and identified the amino acid response (AAR) as being triggered in HepG2 by ETC inhibition. Through in silico approaches we provide evidence indicating that a similar AAR is associated with exposure to mitochondrial toxicants in primary human hepatocytes. Altogether, we (i) unravel quantitative, time- and concentration-resolved cellular responses to mitochondrial perturbation, (ii) identify a gene set associated with adaptation to exposure to active ETC inhibitors, and (iii) show that ER stress and an AAR accompany ETC inhibition in HepG2 and primary hepatocytes.
    Keywords:  DILI; ETC complex inhibitors; High-content imaging; Mitochondrial toxicity; TempO-Seq
  6. STAR Protoc. 2021 Dec 17. 2(4): 100850
      This protocol describes the assembly and use of MitoPunch to deliver mitochondria containing mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) into cells lacking mtDNA (ρ0 cells). MitoPunch generates stable isolated mitochondrial recipient clones with restored mtDNA and recovered respiration, enabling investigation of mtDNA mutations and mtDNA-nuclear DNA interactions in a range of cell types. For complete details on the use and execution of this protocol, please refer to Sercel et al. (2021) and Patananan et al. (2020).
    Keywords:  Biotechnology and bioengineering; Cell Biology; Cell culture; Cell-based Assays; Metabolism
  7. Front Cardiovasc Med. 2021 ;8 749756
      Mitochondria are essential organelles for cellular energy production, metabolic homeostasis, calcium homeostasis, cell proliferation, and apoptosis. About 99% of mammalian mitochondrial proteins are encoded by the nuclear genome, synthesized as precursors in the cytosol, and imported into mitochondria by mitochondrial protein import machinery. Mitochondrial protein import systems function not only as independent units for protein translocation, but also are deeply integrated into a functional network of mitochondrial bioenergetics, protein quality control, mitochondrial dynamics and morphology, and interaction with other organelles. Mitochondrial protein import deficiency is linked to various diseases, including cardiovascular disease. In this review, we describe an emerging class of protein or genetic variations of components of the mitochondrial import machinery involved in heart disease. The major protein import pathways, including the presequence pathway (TIM23 pathway), the carrier pathway (TIM22 pathway), and the mitochondrial intermembrane space import and assembly machinery, related translocases, proteinases, and chaperones, are discussed here. This review highlights the importance of mitochondrial import machinery in heart disease, which deserves considerable attention, and further studies are urgently needed. Ultimately, this knowledge may be critical for the development of therapeutic strategies in heart disease.
    Keywords:  CHCHD4 (MIA40); TIM22 complex; TIM23 complex; TOM complex; heart disease; mitochondrial protein import machinery
  8. Front Cell Dev Biol. 2021 ;9 737304
      Mitophagy specifically recognizes and removes damaged or superfluous mitochondria to maintain mitochondrial homeostasis and proper neuronal function. Defective mitophagy and the resulting accumulation of damaged mitochondria occur in several neurodegenerative diseases. Previously, we showed mitochondrial dysfunction in astrocytes with POLG mutations, and here, we examined how POLG mutations affect mitophagy in astrocytes and how this can be ameliorated pharmacologically. Using induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC)-derived astrocytes carrying POLG mutations, we found downregulation of mitophagy/autophagy-related genes using RNA sequencing-based KEGG metabolic pathway analysis. We confirmed a deficit in mitochondrial autophagosome formation under exogenous stress conditions and downregulation of the mitophagy receptor p62, reduced lipidation of LC3B-II, and decreased expression of lysosome protein lysosomal-associated membrane protein 2A (LAMP2A). These changes were regulated by the PINK1/Parkin pathway and AKT/mTOR/AMPK/ULK1 signaling pathways. Importantly, we found that double treatment with nicotinamide riboside (NR) and metformin rescued mitophagy defects and mitochondrial dysfunction in POLG-mutant astrocytes. Our findings reveal that impaired mitophagy is involved in the observed mitochondrial dysfunction caused by POLG mutations in astrocytes, potentially contributing to the phenotype in POLG-related diseases. This study also demonstrates the therapeutic potential of NR and metformin in these incurable mitochondrial diseases.
    Keywords:  IPSC (induced pluripotent stem cells); POLG; astrocytes; metformin; mitochondria; mitophagy; nicotinamide riboside (NR)
  9. Front Pharmacol. 2021 ;12 747837
      The integrated stress response (ISR) is an evolutionarily conserved intra-cellular signaling network which is activated in response to intrinsic and extrinsic stresses. Various stresses are sensed by four specialized kinases, PKR-like ER kinase (PERK), general control non-derepressible 2 (GCN2), double-stranded RNA-dependent protein kinase (PKR) and heme-regulated eIF2α kinase (HRI) that converge on phosphorylation of serine 51 of eIF2α. eIF2α phosphorylation causes a global reduction of protein synthesis and triggers the translation of specific mRNAs, including activating transcription factor 4 (ATF4). Although the ISR promotes cell survival and homeostasis, when stress is severe or prolonged the ISR signaling will shift to regulate cellular apoptosis. We review the ISR signaling pathway, regulation and importance in cancer therapy.
    Keywords:  ATF4; CHOP; apoptosis; cancer treatment; integrated stress responses
  10. Biol Open. 2021 Oct 13. pii: bio.059072. [Epub ahead of print]
      Next-generation sequencing can quickly reveal genetic variation potentially linked to heritable disease. As databases encompassing human variation continue to expand, rare variants have been of high interest, since the frequency of a variant is expected to be low if the genetic change leads to a loss of fitness or fecundity. However, the use of variant frequency when seeking genomic changes linked to disease remains very challenging. Here, we explore the role of selection in controlling human variant frequency using the HelixMT database, which encompasses hundreds of thousands of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) samples. We find that a substantial number of synonymous substitutions, which have no effect on protein sequence, were never encountered in this large study, while many other synonymous changes are found at very low frequencies. Further analyses of human and mammalian mtDNA datasets indicate that the population frequency of synonymous variants is predominantly determined by mutational biases rather than by strong selection acting upon nucleotide choice. Our work has important implications that extend to the interpretation of variant frequency for non-synonymous substitutions.
    Keywords:  Genomic variation; Mitochondrial DNA; Mutational bias; Pathogenicity prediction; Population frequency
  11. Hum Mol Genet. 2021 Oct 12. pii: ddab299. [Epub ahead of print]
      Mutations in mitochondrial DNA encoded subunit of ATP synthase, MT-ATP6, are frequent causes of neurological mitochondrial diseases with a range of phenotypes from Leigh syndrome and NARP to ataxias and neuropathies. Here we investigated the functional consequences of an unusual heteroplasmic truncating mutation m.9154C>T in MT-ATP6, which caused peripheral neuropathy, ataxia and IgA nephropathy. ATP synthase not only generates cellular ATP, but its dimerization is required for mitochondrial cristae formation. Accordingly, the MT-ATP6 truncating mutation impaired the assembly of ATP synthase and disrupted cristae morphology, supporting our molecular dynamics simulations that predicted destabilized a/c subunit subcomplex. Next, we modeled the effects of the truncating mutation using patient-specific induced pluripotent stem cells. Unexpectedly, depending on mutation heteroplasmy level, the truncation showed multiple threshold effects in cellular reprogramming, neurogenesis and in metabolism of mature motor neurons (MN). Interestingly, MN differentiation beyond progenitor stage was impaired by Notch hyperactivation in the MT-ATP6 mutant, but not by rotenone-induced inhibition of mitochondrial respiration, suggesting that altered mitochondrial morphology contributed to Notch hyperactivation. Finally, we also identified a lower mutation threshold for a metabolic shift in mature MN, affecting lactate utilization, which may be relevant for understanding the mechanisms of mitochondrial involvement in peripheral motor neuropathies. These results establish a critical and disease-relevant role for ATP synthase in human cell fate decisions and neuronal metabolism.
  12. Nat Commun. 2021 Oct 13. 12(1): 5977
      Muscle diseases and aging are associated with impaired myogenic stem cell self-renewal and fewer proliferating progenitors (MPs). Importantly, distinct metabolic states induced by glycolysis or oxidative phosphorylation have been connected to MP proliferation and differentiation. However, how these energy-provisioning mechanisms cooperate remain obscure. Herein, we describe a mechanism by which mitochondrial-localized transcriptional co-repressor p107 regulates MP proliferation. We show p107 directly interacts with the mitochondrial DNA, repressing mitochondrial-encoded gene transcription. This reduces ATP production by limiting electron transport chain complex formation. ATP output, controlled by the mitochondrial function of p107, is directly associated with the cell cycle rate. Sirt1 activity, dependent on the cytoplasmic glycolysis product NAD+, directly interacts with p107, impeding its mitochondrial localization. The metabolic control of MP proliferation, driven by p107 mitochondrial function, establishes a cell cycle paradigm that might extend to other dividing cell types.
  13. Cancers (Basel). 2021 Oct 05. pii: 4994. [Epub ahead of print]13(19):
      miR-27a plays a driver role in rewiring tumor cell metabolism. We searched for new miR-27a targets that could affect mitochondria and identified FOXJ3, an apical factor of mitochondrial biogenesis. We analyzed FOXJ3 levels in an in vitro cell model system that was genetically modified for miR-27a expression and validated it as an miR-27a target. We showed that the miR-27a/FOXJ3 axis down-modulates mitochondrial biogenesis and other key members of the pathway, implying multiple levels of control. As assessed by specific markers, the miR-27a/FOXJ3 axis also dysregulates mitochondrial dynamics, resulting in fewer, short, and punctate organelles. Consistently, in high miR-27a-/low FOXJ3-expressing cells, mitochondria are functionally characterized by lower superoxide production, respiration capacity, and membrane potential, as evaluated by OCR assays and confocal microscopy. The analysis of a mouse xenograft model confirmed FOXJ3 as a target and suggested that the miR-27a/FOXJ3 axis affects mitochondrial abundance in vivo. A survey of the TCGA-COADREAD dataset supported the inverse relationship of FOXJ3 with miR-27a and reinforced cellular component organization or biogenesis as the most affected pathway. The miR-27a/FOXJ3 axis acts as a central hub in regulating mitochondrial homeostasis. Its discovery paves the way for new therapeutic strategies aimed at restraining tumor growth by targeting mitochondrial activities.
    Keywords:  FOXJ3; colorectal cancer; miRNA; mitochondria; tumor metabolism
  14. Mol Oncol. 2021 Oct 10.
      Multiple molecular features, such as activation of specific oncogenes (e.g. MYC, BCL2) or a variety of gene expression signatures, have been associated with disease course in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL), although their relationships and implications for targeted therapy remain to be fully unraveled. We report that MYC activity is closely correlated with - and most likely a driver of - gene signatures related to oxidative phosphorylation (OxPhos) in DLBCL, pointing to OxPhos enzymes, in particular mitochondrial electron transport chain (ETC) complexes, as possible therapeutic targets in high-grade MYC-associated lymphomas. In our experiments, indeed, MYC sensitized B-cells to the ETC complex I inhibitor IACS-010759. Mechanistically, IACS-010759 triggered the integrated stress response (ISR) pathway, driven by the transcription factors ATF-4 and CHOP, which engaged the intrinsic apoptosis pathway and lowered the apoptotic threshold in MYC-overexpressing cells. In line with these findings, the BCL2-inhibitory compound venetoclax synergized with IACS-010759 against double-hit lymphoma (DHL), a high-grade malignancy with concurrent activation of MYC and BCL2. In BCL2-negative lymphoma cells, instead, killing by IACS-010759 was potentiated by the Mcl-1 inhibitor S63845. Thus, combining an OxPhos inhibitor with select BH3-mimetic drugs provides a novel therapeutic principle against aggressive, MYC-associated DLBCL variants.
    Keywords:  BCL2; DLBCL; Integrated Stress Response; MYC; OxPhos; chemotherapy
  15. Free Radic Biol Med. 2021 Oct 11. pii: S0891-5849(21)00759-0. [Epub ahead of print]
      Oxidative stress inflicts mitochondrial dysfunction, which has been recognized as a key driver of intestinal diseases. Resveratrol (RSV) and its derivative pterostilbene (PTS) are natural antioxidants and exert a protective influence on intestinal health. However, the therapeutic effects and mechanisms of RSV and PTS on oxidative stress-induced mitochondrial dysfunction and intestinal injury remain unclear. The present study used porcine and cellular settings to compare the effects of RSV and PTS on mitochondrial redox homeostasis and function to alleviate oxidative stress-induced intestinal injury. Our results indicated that PTS was more potent than RSV in reducing oxidative stress, maintaining intestinal integrity, and preserving the mitochondrial function of diquat-challenged piglets. In the in vitro study, RSV and PTS protected against hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)-induced mitochondrial dysfunction in intestinal porcine enterocyte cell line (IPEC-J2) by facilitating mitochondrial biogenesis and increasing the activities of mitochondrial complexes. In addition, both RSV and PTS efficiently mitigated mitochondrial oxidative stress by increasing sirtuin 3 protein expression and the deacetylation of superoxide dismutase 2 and peroxiredoxin 3 in H2O2-exposed IPEC-J2 cells. Furthermore, RSV and PTS preserved mitochondrial membrane potential, which restrained the release of cytochrome C from mitochondria to the cytoplasm and caspase-3 activation and further reduced apoptotic rates in H2O2-exposed IPEC-J2 cells. Mechanistically, depletion of sirtuin 1 (SIRT1) abrogated RSV's and PTS's benefits against mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (mtROS) overproduction, mitochondrial dysfunction, and apoptosis in H2O2-exposed IPEC-J2 cells, suggesting that SIRT1 was required for RSV and PTS to protect against oxidative stress-induced intestinal injury. In conclusion, RSV and PTS improve oxidative stress-induced intestinal injury by regulating mitochondrial redox homeostasis and function via SIRT1 signaling pathway. In offering this protection, PTS is superior to RSV.
    Keywords:  Intestinal oxidative injury; Mitochondrial function; Mitochondrial redox homeostasis; Pterostilbene; Resveratrol; Sirtuin 1
  16. Open Life Sci. 2021 ;16(1): 1037-1044
      Phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/AKT signaling is a crucial pathway for cell survival and proliferation, which are regulated by several growth factors and activated receptors. Upregulated PI3K/AKT signaling molecules were reported in several cancers and they are associated with altered cellular functions, leading to oncogenesis. Here, we have examined the implications of elevated PI3K/AKT expression in the apoptosis resistance of human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) Huh7 cells. We showed that PI3K/AKT signaling is significantly upregulated in Huh7 cells by quantitative polymerase chain reaction and protein expression analysis. Also, perversely upregulated PI3K/AKT signaling Huh7 cells are highly resistant to treatment with chemotherapy drugs (docetaxel and sorafenib) and acquired apoptosis resistance through downregulation of tumor suppressor protein PTEN (phosphatase and tensin homolog deleted on chromosome ten). Hence, we have investigated the effect of PTEN overexpression on apoptosis induction in Huh7 cells. We showed that PTEN overexpressed Huh7 cells became more sensitive toward the aforesaid drugs and induced apoptotic cell death due to intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation. Concurrently, the overexpression of PTEN leads to the activation of mitochondria facilitated intrinsic apoptosis, evidenced by upregulated cytochrome C, caspase 3, and caspase 9. Collectively, our data suggest that the aberrant expression of PI3K/AKT signaling contributes to apoptosis resistance in HCC.
    Keywords:  PI3K/AKT signaling; PTEN; caspases; cell death; liver cancer
  17. Expert Opin Ther Targets. 2021 Oct 12.
      INTRODUCTION: Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is the leading, cause of sight loss in the elderly in the Western world. Most patients remain still without any treatment options. The targeting of Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator 1-alpha (PGC-1α), a transcription co-factor, is a putative therapy against AMD.AREAS COVERED: The characteristics of AMD and their possible connection with PGC-1α as well as the transcriptional and post-transcriptional control of PGC-1α are discussed. The PGC-1α-driven control of mitochondrial functions, and its involvement in autophagy and antioxidant responses are also examined. Therapeutic possibilities via drugs and epigenetic approaches to enhance PGC-1α expression are discussed. Authors conducted a search of literature mainly from the recent decade from the PubMed database.
    EXPERT OPINION: Therapy options in AMD could include PGC-1α activation or stabilization. This could be achieved by a direct elevation of PGC-1α activity, a stabilization or modification of its upstream activators and inhibitors by chemical compounds, like 5-Aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide riboside, metformin, and resveratrol. Furthermore, manipulations with epigenetic modifiers of PGC-1α expression, including miRNAs, e.g. miR-204, are considered. A therapy aimed at PGC-1α up-regulation may be possible in other disorders besides AMD, if they are associated with disturbances in the mitochondria-antioxidant response-autophagy axis.
    Keywords:  Age-related macular degeneration; PGC-1α; antioxidant response; autophagy; mitochondria; retinal pigment epithelium
  18. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2021 Oct 09. pii: S0006-291X(21)01399-1. [Epub ahead of print]581 31-37
      Glioblastoma is the most serious type of brain cancer with poor prognosis. Here, using the publicly available glioma database, we identified that USP30-AS1, an antisense lncRNA locating on the opposite strand of USP30 locus, is upregulated in human gliomas, particularly in high grade glioma. High level of USP30-AS1 is correlated with poor survival in both primary and recurrent glioma patients. USP30-AS1 regulates mitochondrial homeostasis and mitophagy in glioblastoma cells. Knockdown of USP30-AS1 decreases mitochondrial protein expression and mitochondrial mass, promotes mitochondrial uncoupler-induced mitophagy. However, USP30-AS1 does not regulate USP30 expression in a cis-regulatory manner. In summary, this study proposed that USP30-AS1 may serve as a valuable prognostic marker for gliomas. USP3-AS1 is a negative regulator of mitophagy and the regulatory effect is USP30-independent. USP30-AS1 mediated repression of mitophagy may contribute to the loss of mitochondrial homeostasis and tumor development in glioma.
    Keywords:  Glioblastoma; LncRNA; Mitochondria; Mitophagy; USP30-AS1
  19. Int J Biol Macromol. 2021 Oct 08. pii: S0141-8130(21)02155-3. [Epub ahead of print]
      The innate immune system is the first line of host defense, and it is capable of resisting both exogenous pathogenic challenges and endogenous danger signals via different pattern recognition receptors (PRRs), including Toll-like receptors, retinoic acid-inducible gene-1 (RIG-1)-like receptors, cytosolic DNA sensors, as well as nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain (NOD)-like receptors. After recognizing the pathogen-associated molecular patterns from exogenous microbes or the damage-associated molecular patterns from endogenous immune-stimulatory signals, these PRRs signaling pathways can induce the expression of interferons and inflammatory factors against microbial pathogen invasion and endogenous stresses. Calcium (Ca2+) is a second messenger that participates in the modulation of various biological processes, including survival, proliferation, apoptosis, and immune response, and is involved in diverse diseases, such as autoimmune diseases and virus infection. To date, accumulating evidence elucidated that the PRR signaling exhibited a regulatory effect on Ca2+ signaling. Meanwhile, Ca2+ signaling also played a critical role in controlling biological processes mediated by the PRR adaptors. Since the importance of these two signalings, it would be interesting to clarify the deeper biological implications of their interplays. This review focuses on the crosstalk between Ca2+ signaling and PRR signaling to regulate innate immune responses.
    Keywords:  Calcium signaling; DNA sensors; Janus kinase/signal transducer and activator of transcription pathway; Nuclear factor κB pathway; Nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain (NOD)-like receptors; Pattern-recognition receptor; Retinoic acid-inducible gene-1 (RIG-1)-like receptors; Toll-like receptors
  20. Int J Mol Sci. 2021 Sep 26. pii: 10344. [Epub ahead of print]22(19):
      Several pediatric mitochondrial disorders, including Leigh syndrome (LS), impact mitochondrial (mt) genetics, development, and metabolism, leading to complex pathologies and energy failure. The extent to which pathogenic mtDNA variants regulate disease severity in LS is currently not well understood. To better understand this relationship, we computed a glycolytic bioenergetics health index (BHI) for measuring mitochondrial dysfunction in LS patient fibroblast cells harboring varying percentages of pathogenic mutant mtDNA (T8993G, T9185C) exhibiting deficiency in complex V or complex I (T10158C, T12706C). A high percentage (>90%) of pathogenic mtDNA in cells affecting complex V and a low percentage (<39%) of pathogenic mtDNA in cells affecting complex I was quantified. Levels of defective enzyme activities of the electron transport chain correlated with the percentage of pathogenic mtDNA. Subsequent bioenergetics assays showed cell lines relied on both OXPHOS and glycolysis for meeting energy requirements. Results suggest that whereas the precise mechanism of LS has not been elucidated, a multi-pronged approach taking into consideration the specific pathogenic mtDNA variant, glycolytic BHI, and the composite BHI (average ratio of oxphos to glycolysis) can aid in better understanding the factors influencing disease severity in LS.
    Keywords:  bioenergetics health index; glycolysis; leigh syndrome; mitochondrial disorders; mitochondrial respiration