bims-myxlip Biomed News
on Myxoid liposarcoma
Issue of 2023‒12‒03
one paper selected by
Laura Mannarino, Humanitas Research

  1. Oncol Res Treat. 2023 11 28.
      BACKGROUND: Topoisomerase I is an enzyme that plays a crucial part in DNA replication and transcription by the relaxation of supercoiled double-stranded DNA. Topoisomerase I inhibitors bind to the topoisomerase I cleavage complex, thereby stabilizing it and preventing the religation of the DNA strands, leading to DNA damage, cell cycle arrest and apoptosis. Various topoisomerase I inhibitors have been evaluated in solid tumors, and irinotecan and topotecan have been approved for the treatment of epithelial malignancies. None of them have been approved for sarcoma, a diverse group of rare solid tumors with an unmet need for effective treatments.SUMMARY: Topoisomerase I inhibitors have been evaluated in preclinical studies as single agents or in combination in solid tumors, some of which have included sarcomas where activity was observed. Clinical trials evaluating topoisomerase I inhibitors for the treatment of sarcoma have shown limited efficacy as monotherapy. In combination with other cytotoxic agents, topoisomerase I inhibitors have become part of clinical routine in selected sarcoma subtypes. Regimen such as irinotecan/vincristine/temozolomide are used in relapsed rhabdomyosarcoma, irinotecan/temozolomide and vincristine/topotecan/cyclophosphamide are commonly given in refractory Ewing sarcoma, and topotecan/carboplatin showed some activity in advanced soft tissue sarcoma. This review provides an overview of key studies with topoisomerase I inhibitors for the treatment of sarcoma. Topoisomerase I inhibitors are currently also being assessed as "payloads" for antibody-drug conjugates (ADCs), allowing for the targeting of specific antigen expressing tumor cells and the delivery of the inhibitor directly to the tumor cells with the potential of enhancing therapeutic efficacy while minimizing systemic toxicity. Here, we also provide a brief overview on topoisomerase I-ADCs.
    KEY MESSAGE: Topoisomerase I inhibitors are an important component of some systemic therapies for selected sarcomas, have potent cytotoxic properties and pharmacological characteristics that make them relevant candidates as payloads for the development of sarcoma-specific ADCs. ADCs are antibody-based targeted agents allowing for efficient and specific delivery of a given drug to the tumor cell. Topoisomerase I-ADCs are a novel targeted delivery approach which may have the potential to improve the therapeutic index of topoisomerase I inhibitors in the treatment of sarcoma and warrants investigation in a broad variety of mesenchymal malignancies.