bims-myxlip Biomed News
on Myxoid liposarcoma
Issue of 2023‒09‒10
two papers selected by
Laura Mannarino, Humanitas Research

  1. Cells. 2023 Sep 04. pii: 2204. [Epub ahead of print]12(17):
      Genomic-based precision medicine has not only improved tumour therapy but has also shown its weaknesses. Genomic profiling and mutation analysis have identified alterations that play a major role in sarcoma pathogenesis and evolution. However, they have not been sufficient in predicting tumour vulnerability and advancing treatment. The relative rarity of sarcomas and the genetic heterogeneity between subtypes also stand in the way of gaining statistically significant results from clinical trials. Personalized three-dimensional tumour models that reflect the specific histologic subtype are emerging as functional assays to test anticancer drugs, complementing genomic screening. Here, we provide an overview of current target therapy for sarcomas and discuss functional assays based on 3D models that, by recapitulating the molecular pathways and tumour microenvironment, may predict patient response to treatments. This approach opens new avenues to improve precision medicine when genomic and pathway alterations are not sufficient to guide the choice of the most promising treatment. Furthermore, we discuss the aspects of the 3D culture assays that need to be improved, such as the standardisation of growth conditions and the definition of in vitro responses that can be used as a cut-off for clinical implementation.
    Keywords:  3D model; assay; clinical trial; explant; genomic profiles; immunotherapy; organ on chip; organoid target therapy; sarcoma
  2. Front Immunol. 2023 ;14 1211068
      In recent years, the central role of cell bioenergetics in regulating immune cell function and fate has been recognized, giving rise to the interest in immunometabolism, an area of research focused on the interaction between metabolic regulation and immune function. Thus, early metabolic changes associated with the polarization of macrophages into pro-inflammatory or pro-resolving cells under different stimuli have been characterized. Tumor-associated macrophages are among the most abundant cells in the tumor microenvironment; however, it exists an unmet need to study the effect of chemotherapeutics on macrophage immunometabolism. Here, we use a systems biology approach that integrates transcriptomics and metabolomics to unveil the immunometabolic effects of trabectedin (TRB) and lurbinectedin (LUR), two DNA-binding agents with proven antitumor activity. Our results show that TRB and LUR activate human macrophages toward a pro-inflammatory phenotype by inducing a specific metabolic rewiring program that includes ROS production, changes in the mitochondrial inner membrane potential, increased pentose phosphate pathway, lactate release, tricarboxylic acids (TCA) cycle, serine and methylglyoxal pathways in human macrophages. Glutamine, aspartate, histidine, and proline intracellular levels are also decreased, whereas oxygen consumption is reduced. The observed immunometabolic changes explain additional antitumor activities of these compounds and open new avenues to design therapeutic interventions that specifically target the immunometabolic landscape in the treatment of cancer.
    Keywords:  ROS; immunometabolism; lurbinectedin; macrophages; trabectedin