bims-myxlip Biomed News
on Myxoid liposarcoma
Issue of 2023‒06‒04
three papers selected by
Laura Mannarino
Humanitas Research

  1. Exp Hematol Oncol. 2023 May 31. 12(1): 51
      Soft-tissue sarcoma (STS) are a heterogeneous group of rare tumors with different biological behavior that are fatal in more than 40% of cases, due to their metastatic evolution and inadequate treatment options. ATR inhibition already showed an activity, even if modest, in broad pre-clinical models of STS. By using genome-wide CRISPR/Cas9 library screening, we identified ATM signaling network genes as critical drivers for resistance to the specific ATR inhibitor AZD6738. The role of such genes in resistance to AZD6738 was confirmed by using CRISPR/Cas9 knockout models. More strikingly, the ATM inhibitor AZD0156 works synergistically with AZD6738 in vitro and abolishes STS growth in vivo in our models of most frequent histotypes (such as dedifferentiated liposarcoma, leiomyosarcoma, and undifferentiated pleomorphic sarcoma among others). Moreover, the combination of AZD6738 and AZD0156 induced significantly higher levels of DNA damage than either drug used as single agent alone. In summary, our results demonstrate that targeting ATM is an effective approach to overcome resistance to ATR inhibition in different STS subtypes, including the most frequent histologies.
    Keywords:  ATM; ATR; CRISPR/Cas9; Synthetic lethality
  2. Genes Chromosomes Cancer. 2023 May 29.
      Most neoplasia-associated gene fusions are formed through the fusion of the 5'-part of one gene with the 3'-part of another. We here describe a unique mechanism, by which a part of the KMT2A gene through an insertion replaces part of the YAP1 gene. The resulting YAP1::KMT2A::YAP1 (YKY) fusion was verified by RT-PCR in three cases of sarcoma morphologically resembling sclerosing epithelioid fibrosarcoma (SEF-like sarcoma). In all cases, a portion (exons 4/5-6) encoding the CXXC domain of KMT2A was inserted between exon 4/5 and exon 8/9 of YAP1. The inserted sequence from KMT2A thus replaced exons 5/6-8 of YAP1, which encode an important regulatory sequence of YAP1. To evaluate the cellular impact of the YKY fusion, global gene expression profiles from fresh frozen and formalin-fixed YKY-expressing sarcomas were compared with control tumors. The effects of the YKY fusion, as well as YAP1::KMT2A and KMT2A::YAP1 fusion constructs, were further studied in immortalized fibroblasts. Analysis of differentially upregulated genes revealed significant overlap between tumors and cell lines expressing YKY, as well as with previously reported YAP1 fusions. Pathway analysis of upregulated genes in cells and tumors expressing YKY revealed an enrichment of genes included in key oncogenic signaling pathways, such as Wnt and Hedgehog. As these pathways are known to interact with YAP1, it seems likely that the pathogenesis of sarcomas with the YKY fusion is linked to distorted YAP1 signaling.
    Keywords:  KMT2A; YAP1; fusion; insertion; sarcoma
  3. J Clin Pathol. 2023 May 31. pii: jcp-2023-208814. [Epub ahead of print]
      AIMS: Liposarcoma is a malignant soft tissue tumour with adipocytic differentiation. Dedifferentiated liposarcoma (DDLS) and myxoid liposarcoma (MLS) are classified as high-grade liposarcomas. Lipid droplet-associated protein (also known as perilipin 1 (PLIN1)) is the predominant perilipin and has utility as a specific marker of adipogenic differentiation. Adipose differentiation-related protein (also known as adipophilin (ADRP)) is ubiquitously expressed in a range of tissues. High ADRP expression is reportedly a poor prognostic factor in several cancer types. However, no previous studies have examined the association between PLIN1 or ADRP expression and prognosis in sarcoma. This study therefore aimed to evaluate the association between PLIN1 or ADRP expression and prognosis in liposarcoma.METHODS: In total, 97 primary resection specimens (53 MLS and 44 DDLS) were examined in this study. PLIN1 and ADRP expression was evaluated by immunohistochemistry. Survival analyses were performed for MLS and DDLS.
    RESULTS: Of the 53 MLS specimens, 15 (28.3%) exhibited high PLIN1 expression. PLIN1 expression was not observed in DDLS specimens. High PLIN1 expression was significantly associated with increased disease-free survival (DFS) among patients with MLS (p=0.045). Distinct ADRP expression was observed in 13 of 53 (24.5%) MLS specimens and 5 of 44 (11.4%) DDLS specimens. High ADRP expression was associated with shorter overall survival (OS) in MLS (p=0.042) and DFS and shorter OS in DDLS (p=0.024 and p<0.001, respectively).
    CONCLUSIONS: PLIN1 and ADRP expression is associated with poor prognosis in high-grade liposarcoma.
    Keywords:  IMMUNOHISTOCHEMISTRY; Sarcoma; Soft Tissue Neoplasms