bims-myxlip Biomed News
on Myxoid liposarcoma
Issue of 2023‒04‒02
nine papers selected by
Laura Mannarino
Humanitas Research

  1. Genes Chromosomes Cancer. 2023 Mar 26.
      Sarcomas are rare malignancies that exhibit diverse biological, genetic, morphological and clinical characteristics. Genetic alterations, such as gene fusions, mutations in transcriptional machinery components, histones, and DNA methylation regulatory molecules, play an essential role in sarcomagenesis. These mutations induce and/or cooperate with specific epigenetic aberrations required for the growth and maintenance of sarcomas. Appropriate mouse models have been developed to clarify the significance of genetic and epigenetic interactions in sarcomas. Studies using the mouse models for human sarcomas have demonstrated major advances in our understanding the developmental processes as well as tumor microenvironment of sarcomas. Recent technological progresses in epigenome editing will not only improve the studies using animal models but also provide a direct clue for epigenetic therapies. In this manuscript, we review important epigenetic aberrations in sarcomas and their representative mouse models, current methods of epigenetic editing using CRISPR/dCas9 systems, and potential applications in sarcoma studies and therapeutics.
    Keywords:  Sarcoma; epigenetic aberration; epigenetic editing; fusion gene; mouse model
  2. JAMA Oncol. 2023 Mar 30.
      Importance: Preclinical data about the synergistic activity of radiotherapy (RT) and trabectedin have been reported. The combination of trabectedin and RT in treating myxoid liposarcomas appears worth exploring.Objective: To explore the effectiveness and safety of trabectedin combined with RT.
    Design, Setting, and Participants: This international, open-label, phase 2 nonrandomized clinical trial including 46 patients with myxoid liposarcoma was conducted in 4 centers in Spain, 1 in Italy, and 2 in France from July 1, 2016, to September 30, 2019. Eligible patients had to have a histologic, centrally reviewed diagnosis of localized resectable myxoid liposarcoma arising from an extremity or the trunk wall.
    Interventions: Trabectedin was administered at the recommended dose stemming from the phase 1 trial (1.5 mg/m2), with intravenous infusion during 24 hours every 21 days for a total of 3 cycles. Radiotherapy was started after completion of the first trabectedin infusion (cycle 1, day 2). Patients received 25 fractions of radiation for a total of 45 Gy. Surgery was planned 3 to 4 weeks after the administration of the last preoperative cycle and not until 4 weeks after the end of preoperative RT. Pathologic specimens were mapped in tumor sections to estimate the histologic changes and the percentage of viable tumor after neoadjuvant treatment.
    Main Outcomes and Measures: The primary objective of the phase 2 part of the study was overall response. Secondary objectives were effectiveness measured by relapse-free survival and activity measured by functional imaging and pathologic response.
    Results: A total of 46 patients were enrolled. Four patients were not evaluable. The median age was 43 years (range, 18-77 years), and 31 patients were male (67%). Overall, 9 of 41 patients (22%) achieved a partial response with neoadjuvant treatment with trabectedin and RT, with 5 of 39 patients (13%) achieving a complete pathologic response and 20 of 39 patients (51%) having 10% or less of a viable remaining tumor. Partial responses according to Choi criteria were observed in 24 of 29 evaluable patients (83%), and no patient had disease progression. Treatment was well tolerated.
    Conclusions and Relevance: Although the primary end point of this phase 2 nonrandomized clinical trial was not met (Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors response in ≥70% of patients), results suggest this combination was well tolerated and effective in terms of pathologic response. Thus, trabectedin plus RT might be a treatment option regarding tolerability; further evidence should be generated in this setting.
  3. Jpn J Clin Oncol. 2023 Mar 30. pii: hyad021. [Epub ahead of print]
      OBJECTIVE: eribulin, an anticancer agent that inhibits microtubule growth, along with trabectedin and pazopanib, has been approved for the treatment of advanced soft tissue sarcoma (STS). However, there has been no consensus on the optimal second-line therapy among these three agents following treatment failure with doxorubicin. Recently, the effects of eribulin on the tumor microenvironment and immunity have been reported in breast cancer, and peripheral blood immune markers have also been reported to be a predictor of eribulin efficacy, though this remains unverified in STS. We aimed to evaluate the predictive value of various peripheral blood immune markers in STS patients treated with eribulin.METHODS: we retrospectively reviewed the medical records of STS patients treated with eribulin and examined whether peripheral blood immune markers at different time points could be prognostic factors for STS patients treated with eribulin.
    RESULTS: several peripheral blood immune markers were significantly associated with progression-free survival (PFS), specifically neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) prestart (NLR before the initial administration of eribulin) (P = 0.019) and absolute lymphocyte count (ALC)8D (ALC on Day 8 of the first administration of eribulin) (P = 0.037). NLR prestart (P = 0.001) was significantly associated with overall survival. The combination of NLR prestart and ALC8D determined the PFS of STS patients treated with eribulin.
    CONCLUSIONS: the combined indicator of low NLR prestart and high ALC8D predicted the survival of patients treated with eribulin as well as the histology of L-sarcoma. Though further validation was needed, this finding would provide valuable prognostic factor that help treatment decision in the absence of consensus on the optimal second-line therapy following doxorubicin treatment in STS patients.
    Keywords:  absolute lymphocyte count (ALC); eribulin; neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR); prognosis; soft tissue sarcoma
  4. Front Oncol. 2023 ;13 1122508
      Soft tissue sarcomas are rare malignant tumors derived from mesenchymal cells that have a high morbidity and mortality related to frequent occurrence of advanced and metastatic disease. Over the past two decades there have been significant advances in the use of targeted therapies for the treatment of soft tissue sarcoma. The ability to study various cellular markers and pathways related to sarcomagenesis has led to the creation and approval of multiple novel therapies. Herein, we describe the current landscape of targeted medications used in the management of advanced or metastatic soft tissue sarcomas, excluding GIST. We distinguish three categories: targeted therapies that have current US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approval for treatment of soft tissue sarcoma, non-FDA approved targeted therapies, and medications in development for treatment of patients with soft tissue sarcoma.
    Keywords:  clinical trial; drug therapy; soft tissue sarcoma; targeted therapy; tyrosine kinase inhibitors
  5. ACS Omega. 2023 Mar 21. 8(11): 10459-10465
      The G-quadruplexes (G4s) in the genome are important drug targets because they regulate gene expression and the genome structure. Several small molecules that bind the G4 have been developed, but few artificial G4 binding proteins have been reported. We previously reported a novel DNA G4 binding protein (RGGF) engineered using the Arg-Gly-Gly repeat (RGG) domain of TLS (translocated in liposarcoma), also known as FUS (fused in sarcoma) protein (TLS/FUS). Here, we show that RGGF recognizes DNA loops in the G4 and preferentially binds DNA G4 with long loops in vitro. Furthermore, RGGF binds to the DNA G4 of the bcl-2 promoter in vitro. RGGF overexpression in HeLa cells represses bcl-2 transcription. On the basis of these findings, G4 binding protein engineered from the RGG domain will be useful for investigating G4 transcriptional function in the genome.
  6. Front Endocrinol (Lausanne). 2023 ;14 1155202
      Control of tissue metabolism and growth involves interactions between organs, tissues, and cell types, mediated by cytokines or direct communication through cellular exchanges. Indeed, over the past decades, many peptides produced by adipose tissue, skeletal muscle and bone named adipokines, myokines and osteokines respectively, have been identified in mammals playing key roles in organ/tissue development and function. Some of them are released into the circulation acting as classical hormones, but they can also act locally showing autocrine/paracrine effects. In recent years, some of these cytokines have been identified in fish models of biomedical or agronomic interest. In this review, we will present their state of the art focusing on local actions and inter-tissue effects. Adipokines reported in fish adipocytes include adiponectin and leptin among others. We will focus on their structure characteristics, gene expression, receptors, and effects, in the adipose tissue itself, mainly regulating cell differentiation and metabolism, but in muscle and bone as target tissues too. Moreover, lipid metabolites, named lipokines, can also act as signaling molecules regulating metabolic homeostasis. Regarding myokines, the best documented in fish are myostatin and the insulin-like growth factors. This review summarizes their characteristics at a molecular level, and describes both, autocrine effects and interactions with adipose tissue and bone. Nonetheless, our understanding of the functions and mechanisms of action of many of these cytokines is still largely incomplete in fish, especially concerning osteokines (i.e., osteocalcin), whose potential cross talking roles remain to be elucidated. Furthermore, by using selective breeding or genetic tools, the formation of a specific tissue can be altered, highlighting the consequences on other tissues, and allowing the identification of communication signals. The specific effects of identified cytokines validated through in vitro models or in vivo trials will be described. Moreover, future scientific fronts (i.e., exosomes) and tools (i.e., co-cultures, organoids) for a better understanding of inter-organ crosstalk in fish will also be presented. As a final consideration, further identification of molecules involved in inter-tissue communication will open new avenues of knowledge in the control of fish homeostasis, as well as possible strategies to be applied in aquaculture or biomedicine.
    Keywords:  IGFs; TGFs; TNF; adiponectin; inter-tissue communication; leptin; myostatin; osteocalcin
  7. Int J Mol Sci. 2023 Mar 08. pii: 5159. [Epub ahead of print]24(6):
      The knowledge of exosome impact on sarcoma development and progression has been implemented in preclinical studies thanks to technological advances in exosome isolation. Moreover, the clinical relevance of liquid biopsy is well established in early diagnosis, prognosis prediction, tumor burden assessment, therapeutic responsiveness, and recurrence monitoring of tumors. In this review, we aimed to comprehensively summarize the existing literature pointing out the clinical relevance of detecting exosomes in liquid biopsy from sarcoma patients. Presently, the clinical utility of liquid biopsy based on exosomes in patients affected by sarcoma is under debate. The present manuscript collects evidence on the clinical impact of exosome detection in circulation of sarcoma patients. The majority of these data are not conclusive and the relevance of liquid biopsy-based approaches in some types of sarcoma is still insufficient. Nevertheless, the utility of circulating exosomes in precision medicine clearly emerged and further validation in larger and homogeneous cohorts of sarcoma patients is clearly needed, requiring collaborative projects between clinicians and translational researchers for these rare cancers.
    Keywords:  exosomes; liquid biopsy; preclinical and clinical practice; sarcoma