bims-myxlip Biomed News
on Myxoid liposarcoma
Issue of 2023‒03‒26
three papers selected by
Laura Mannarino
Humanitas Research

  1. Br J Cancer. 2023 Mar 23.
      BACKGROUND: Systemic therapy for metastatic clear cell sarcoma (CCS) bearing EWSR1-CREB1/ATF1 fusions remains an unmet clinical need in children, adolescents, and young adults.METHODS: To identify key signaling pathway vulnerabilities in CCS, a multi-pronged approach was taken: (i) genomic and transcriptomic landscape analysis, (ii) integrated chemical biology interrogations, (iii) development of CREB1/ATF1 inhibitors, and (iv) antibody-drug conjugate testing (ADC). The first approach encompassed DNA exome and RNA deep sequencing of the largest human CCS cohort yet reported consisting of 47 patient tumor samples and 8 cell lines.
    RESULTS: Sequencing revealed recurrent mutations in cell cycle checkpoint, DNA double-strand break repair or DNA mismatch repair genes, with a correspondingly low to intermediate tumor mutational burden. DNA multi-copy gains with corresponding high RNA expression were observed in CCS tumor subsets. CCS cell lines responded to the HER3 ADC patritumab deruxtecan in a dose-dependent manner in vitro, with impaired long term cell viability.
    CONCLUSION: These studies of the genomic, transcriptomic and chemical biology landscape represent a resource 'atlas' for the field of CCS investigation and drug development. CHK inhibitors are identified as having potential relevance, CREB1 inhibitors non-dependence of CCS on CREB1 activity was established, and the potential utility of HER3 ADC being used in CCS is found.
  2. Biomed Pharmacother. 2023 Mar 18. pii: S0753-3322(23)00336-0. [Epub ahead of print]161 114548
      Immune cells have an important role in the tumor-microenvironment. Macrophages may tune the immune response toward inflammatory or tolerance pathways. Tumor-associated macrophages (TAM) have a string of immunosuppressive functions and they are considered a therapeutic target in cancer. This study aimed to analyze the effects of trabectedin, an antitumor agent, on the tumor-microenvironment through the characterization of the electrophysiological and molecular phenotype of macrophages. Experiments were performed using the whole-cell configuration of the patch-clamp technique in resident peritoneal mouse macrophages. Trabectedin does not directly interact with KV1.5 and KV1.3 channels, but their treatment (16 h) with sub-cytotoxic concentrations of trabectedin increased their KV current due to an upregulation of KV1.3 channels. In vitro generated TAM (TAMiv) exhibited an M2-like phenotype. TAMiv generated a small KV current and express high levels of M2 markers. K+ current from TAMs isolated from tumors generated in mice is a mixture of KV and KCa, and in TAM isolated from tumors generated in trabectedin-treated mice, the current is mostly driven by KCa. We conclude that the antitumor capacity of trabectedin is not only due to its effects on tumor cells, but also to the modulation of the tumor microenvironment, due, at least in part, to the modulation of the expression of different macrophage ion channels.
    Keywords:  Cancer; K(V)1.3; K(V)1.5; Macrophages; TAMs; Trabectedin
  3. ArXiv. 2023 Mar 07. pii: arXiv:2303.04215v1. [Epub ahead of print]
      The well known phenomenon of phase separation in synthetic polymers and proteins has become a major topic in biophysics because it has been invoked as a mechanism of compartment formation in cells, without the need for membranes. Most of the coacervates (or condensates) are composed of Intrinsically Disordered Proteins (IDPs) or regions that are structureless, often in interaction with RNA and DNA. One of the more intriguing IDPs is the 526 residue RNA binding protein, Fused In Sarcoma (FUS), whose monomer conformations and condensates exhibit unusual behavior that are sensitive to solution conditions. By focussing principally on the N-terminus low complexity domain (FUS-LC comprising of residues 1-214) and other truncations, we rationalize the findings in solid state NMR experiments, which show that FUS-LC adopts a nonpolymorphic fibril (core-1) involving residues 39-95, flanked by fuzzy coats on both the N- and C- terminal ends. An alternate structure (core-2), whose free energy is comparable to core-1, emerges only in the truncated construct (residues 110-214). Both core-1 and core-2 fibrils are stabilized by a Tyrosine ladder as well as hydrophilic interactions. The morphologies (gels, fibrils, and glass-like behavior) adopted by FUS seem to vary greatly, depending on the experimental conditions. The effect of phosphorylation is site-specific and affects the stability of the fibril depending on the sites that are phosphorylated. Many of the peculiarities associated with FUS may also be shared by other IDPs, such as TDP43 and hnRNPA2. We outline a number of problems for which there is no clear molecular understanding.