bims-myxlip Biomed News
on Myxoid liposarcoma
Issue of 2023‒02‒05
two papers selected by
Laura Mannarino
Humanitas Research

  1. Int J Cancer. 2023 Feb 02.
      The efficacy of immune checkpoint inhibitors is limited in refractory solid tumours. T-cell receptor gene-modified T (TCR-T)-cell therapy has attracted attention as a new immunotherapy for refractory cold tumours. We first investigated the preclinical efficacy and mode of action of TCR-T cells combined with the pullulan nanogel:long peptide antigen (LPA) vaccine in a mouse sarcoma model that is resistant to immune checkpoint inhibition. Without lymphodepletion, the pullulan nanogel:LPA vaccine markedly increased the number of TCR-T cells in the draining lymph node and tumour tissue. This change was associated with enhanced CXCR3 expression in TCR-T cells in the draining lymph node. In the phase 1 trial, autologous New York oesophageal squamous cell carcinoma 1 (NY-ESO-1)-specific TCR-T cells were infused twice into HLA-matched patients with NY-ESO-1+ soft tissue sarcoma (STS). The pullulan nanogel:LPA vaccine contains an epitope recognized by TCR-T cells, and it was subcutaneously injected one day prior to and 7 days after the infusion of TCR-T cells. Lymphodepletion was not performed. Three patients with refractory synovial sarcoma (SS) were treated. Two out of the 3 patients developed cytokine release syndrome (CRS) with low-to-moderate cytokine level elevation. We found obvious tumour shrinkage lasting for more than 2 years by tumour imaging and long-term persistence of TCR-T cells in one patient. In conclusion, NY-ESO-1-specific TCR-T-cell therapy plus vaccination with the pullulan nanogel carrying an LPA containing the NY-ESO-1 epitope without lymphodepletion is feasible and can induce promising long-lasting therapeutic effects in refractory SS. (Registration ID: JMA-IIA00346) This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
    Keywords:  Adoptive cell therapy; NY-ESO-1; Nanoparticulate vaccine; Soft tissue sarcoma; TCR-T-cell
  2. PNAS Nexus. 2022 Sep;1(4): pgac222
      Ewing sarcoma (EwS) is a human malignant tumor typically driven by the Ewing sarcoma-Friend leukemia integration (EWS-FLI) fusion protein. A paucity of genetically modified animal models, partially owed to the high toxicity of EWS-FLI, hinders research on EwS. Here, we report a spontaneous mutant variant, EWS-FLI1FS, that circumvents the toxicity issue in Drosophila. Through proteomic and genomic analyses, we show that human EWS-FLI1FS interacts with the Drosophila homologues of EWS-FLI human protein partners, including core subunits of chromatin remodeling complexes, the transcription machinery, and the spliceosome; brings about a massive dysregulation of transcription that affects a significant fraction of known targets of EWS-FLI in human cells; and modulates splicing. We also show that EWS-FLI1FS performs in Drosophila the two major neomorphic activities that it is known to have in human cells: activation of transcription from GGAA microsatellites and out competition of ETS transcription factors. We conclude that EWS-FLI1FS reproduces in Drosophila the known oncogenic activities of EWS-FLI that drive EwS tumorigenesis in humans. These results open up an unprecedented opportunity to investigate EWS-FLI's oncogenic pathways in vivo in a genetically tractable organism.