bims-myxlip Biomed News
on Myxoid liposarcoma
Issue of 2022‒11‒27
five papers selected by
Laura Mannarino
Humanitas Research

  1. Int J Mol Sci. 2022 Nov 18. pii: 14305. [Epub ahead of print]23(22):
      Trabectedin is used for the treatment of advanced soft tissue sarcomas (STSs). In this study, we evaluated if trabectedin could enhance the efficacy of irradiation (IR) by increasing the intrinsic cell radiosensitivity and modulating tumor micro-environment in fibrosarcoma (HS 93.T), leiomyosarcoma (HS5.T), liposarcoma (SW872), and rhabdomyosarcoma (RD) cell lines. A significant reduction in cell surviving fraction (SF) following trabectedin + IR compared to IR alone was observed in liposarcoma and leiomyosarcoma (enhancement ratio at 50%, ER50: 1.45 and 2.35, respectively), whereas an additive effect was shown in rhabdomyosarcoma and fibrosarcoma. Invasive cells' fraction significantly decreased following trabectedin ± IR compared to IR alone. Differences in cell cycle distribution were observed in leiomyosarcoma and rhabdomyosarcoma treated with trabectedin + IR. In all STS lines, trabectedin + IR resulted in a significantly higher number of γ-H2AX (histone H2AX) foci 30 min compared to the control, trabectedin, or IR alone. Expression of ATM, RAD50, Ang-2, VEGF, and PD-L1 was not significantly altered following trabectedin + IR. In conclusion, trabectedin radiosensitizes STS cells by affecting SF (particularly in leiomyosarcoma and liposarcoma), invasiveness, cell cycle distribution, and γ-H2AX foci formation. Conversely, no synergistic effect was observed on DNA damage repair, neoangiogenesis, and immune system.
    Keywords:  radiation; radiosensitizers; soft tissue sarcoma; trabectedin
  2. Front Oncol. 2022 ;12 914342
      The ecteinascidins trabectedin and lurbinectedin are very interesting antineoplastic agents, with a favorable toxicity profile and peculiar mechanisms of action. These drugs form adducts in the minor groove of DNA, which produce single-strand breaks (SSBs) and double-strand breaks (DSBs) and trigger a series of events resulting in cell cycle arrest and apoptosis. Moreover, the ecteinascidins interact with the tumor microenvironment, reduce the number of tumor-associated macrophages, and inhibit the secretion of cytokines and chemokines. Trabectedin has been approved by the Federal Drug Administration (FDA) for patients with unresectable or metastatic liposarcoma or leiomyosarcoma who received a prior anthracycline-based regimen. Moreover, trabectedin in combination with pegylated liposomal doxorubicin (PLD) has been approved in the European Union for the treatment of platinum-sensitive recurrent ovarian cancer. Lurbinectedin has been approved by the FDA for patients with metastatic small cell lung cancer with disease progression on or after platinum-based chemotherapy. The review assesses in vitro and in vivo experimental studies on the antineoplastic effects of both ecteinascidins as well as the clinical trials on the activity of trabectedin in uterine sarcoma and ovarian carcinoma and of lurbinectedin in ovarian carcinoma and endometrial carcinoma.
    Keywords:  endometrial cancer; lurbinectedin; ovarian cancer; trabectedin; tumor microenvironment; uterine sarcoma
  3. Exp Cell Res. 2022 Nov 17. pii: S0014-4827(22)00411-6. [Epub ahead of print]422(1): 113418
      DDIT3 is a tightly regulated basic leucine zipper (bZIP) transcription factor and key regulator in cellular stress responses. It is involved in a variety of pathological conditions and may cause cell cycle block and apoptosis. It is also implicated in differentiation of some specialized cell types and as an oncogene in several types of cancer. DDIT3 was originally believed to act as a dominant-negative inhibitor by forming heterodimers with other bZIP transcription factors, preventing their DNA binding and transactivating functions. DDIT3 has, however, been reported to bind DNA and regulate target genes. Here, we employed ChIP sequencing combined with microarray-based expression analysis to identify direct binding motifs and target genes of DDIT3. The results reveal DDIT3 binding to motifs similar to other bZIP transcription factors, known to form heterodimers with DDIT3. Binding to a class III satellite DNA repeat sequence was also detected. DDIT3 acted as a DNA-binding transcription factor and bound mainly to the promotor region of regulated genes. ChIP sequencing analysis of histone H3K27 methylation and acetylation showed a strong overlap between H3K27-acetylated marks and DDIT3 binding. These results support a role for DDIT3 as a transcriptional regulator of H3K27ac-marked genes in transcriptionally active chromatin.
    Keywords:  CHOP; ChIP-seq; DDIT3; Gene function; Transcriptional regulation; bZIP transcription factor
  4. Cancers (Basel). 2022 Nov 15. pii: 5602. [Epub ahead of print]14(22):
      Solitary fibrous tumor of the pleura (SFT) is a rare disease. Besides surgery combined with radiotherapy in nondisseminated stages, curative options are currently absent. Out of fourteen primo-cell cultures, established from surgical SFT specimens, two showed stable in vitro growth. Both cell models harbored the characteristic NAB2-STAT6 fusion and were further investigated by different preclinical methods assessing cell viability, clone formation, and protein regulation upon single-drug treatment or in response to selected treatment combinations. Both fusion-positive cell models showed-in line with the clinical experience and the literature-a low to moderate response to most of the tested cytotoxic and targeted agents. However, the multi-tyrosine kinase inhibitors ponatinib and dasatinib, as well as the anti-sarcoma compound trabectedin, revealed promising activity against SFT growth. Furthermore, both cell models spontaneously presented strong FGFR downstream signaling targetable by ponatinib. Most interestingly, the combination of either ponatinib or dasatinib with trabectedin showed synergistic effects. In conclusion, this study identified novel trabectedin-based treatment combinations with clinically approved tyrosine kinase inhibitors, using two newly established NAB2-STAT6 fusion-positive cell models. These findings can be the basis for anti-SFT drug repurposing approaches in this rare and therapy-refractory disease.
    Keywords:  NAB2-STAT6 gene fusion; dasatinib; in vitro; patient-derived cell lines; ponatinib; solitary fibrous tumor; targeted therapy; trabectedin
  5. Cancers (Basel). 2022 Nov 09. pii: 5498. [Epub ahead of print]14(22):
      BACKGROUND: Ewing sarcoma (ES) cells exhibit extreme plasticity that contributes to the cell's survival and recurrence. Although multiple studies reveal various signaling pathways mediated by the EWSR1/FLI1 fusion, the specific transcriptional control of tumor cell resistance to doxorubicin is unknown. Understanding the molecular hubs that contribute to this behavior provides a new perspective on valuable therapeutic options against tumor cells.METHODS: Single-cell RNA sequencing and LC-MS/MS-based quantitative proteomics were used.
    RESULTS: A goal of this study was to identify protein hubs that would help elucidate tumor resistance which prompted ES to relapse or metastasize. Several differentially expressed genes and proteins, including adhesion, cytoskeletal, and signaling molecules, were observed between embryonic fibroblasts and control and doxorubicin-treated tumor cell lines. While several cancer-associated genes/proteins exhibited similar expression across fibroblasts and non-treated cells, upregulation of some proteins belonging to metabolic, stress response, and growth pathway activation was uniquely observed in doxorubicin-treated sarcoma cells, respectively. The novel information on differentially expressed genes/proteins provides insights into the biology of ES cells, which could help elucidate mechanisms of their recurrence.
    CONCLUSIONS: Collectively, our results identify a novel role of cellular proteins in contributing to tumor cell resistance and escape from doxorubicin therapy and contributing to ES progression.
    Keywords:  Ewing sarcoma; cell resistances; doxorubicin; proteomics; scRNA-seq