bims-myxlip Biomed News
on Myxoid liposarcoma
Issue of 2022‒04‒03
three papers selected by
Laura Mannarino
Humanitas Research

  1. Oncogene. 2022 Mar 30.
      Ewing sarcoma (EWS) is an aggressive bone and soft tissue tumor with high susceptibility to metastasize. The underlying molecular mechanisms leading to EWS metastases remain poorly understood. Epigenetic changes have been implicated in EWS tumor growth and progression. Linking epigenetics and metastases may provide insight into novel molecular targets in EWS and improve its treatment. Here, we evaluated the effects of a selective G9a histone methyltransferase inhibitor (BIX01294) on EWS metastatic process. Our results showed that overexpression of G9a in tumors from EWS patients correlates with poor prognosis. Moreover, we observe a significantly higher expression of G9a in metastatic EWS tumor as compared to either primary or recurrent tumor. Using functional assays, we demonstrate that pharmacological G9a inhibition using BIX01294 disrupts several metastatic steps in vitro, such as migration, invasion, adhesion, colony formation and vasculogenic mimicry. Moreover, BIX01294 reduces tumor growth and metastases in two spontaneous metastases mouse models. We further identified the sialidase NEU1 as a direct target and effector of G9a in the metastatic process in EWS. NEU1 overexpression impairs migration, invasion and clonogenic capacity of EWS cell lines. Overall, G9a inhibition impairs metastases in vitro and in vivo through the overexpression of NEU1. G9a has strong potential as a prognostic marker and may be a promising therapeutic target for EWS patients.
  2. Commun Biol. 2022 Mar 29. 5(1): 280
      Pharmacological activation of brown adipose tissue (BAT) is an attractive approach for increasing energy expenditure to counteract obesity. Given the side-effects of known activators of BAT, we studied inhibitors of BAT as a novel, alternative concept to regulate energy expenditure. We focused on G-protein-coupled receptors that are one of the major targets of clinically used drugs. Here, we identify GPR183, also known as EBI2, as the most highly expressed inhibitory G-protein-coupled receptor in BAT among the receptors examined. Activation of EBI2 using its endogenous ligand 7α,25-dihydroxycholesterol significantly decreases BAT-mediated energy expenditure in mice. In contrast, mice deficient for EBI2 show increased energy dissipation in response to cold. Interestingly, only thermogenic adipose tissue depots - BAT and subcutaneous white adipose tissue -respond to 7α,25-dihydroxycholesterol treatment/EBI2 activation but not gonadal white fat, which has the lowest thermogenic capacity. EBI2 activation in brown adipocytes significantly reduces norepinephrine-induced cAMP production, whereas pharmacological inhibition or genetic ablation of EBI2 results in an increased response. Importantly, EBI2 significantly inhibits norepinephrine-induced activation of human brown adipocytes. Our data identify the 7α,25-dihydroxycholesterol/EBI2 signaling pathway as a so far unknown BAT inhibitor. Understanding the inhibitory regulation of BAT might lead to novel pharmacological approaches to increase the activity of thermogenic adipose tissue and whole body energy expenditure in humans.
  3. Mod Pathol. 2022 Mar 28.
      To elucidate the mechanisms underlying the divergent clinicopathologic spectrum of EWSR1/FUS::CREB translocation-associated tumors, we performed a comprehensive genomic analysis of fusion transcript variants, recurrent genetic alterations (mutations, copy number alterations), gene expression, and methylation profiles across a large cohort of tumor types. The distribution of the EWSR1/FUS fusion partners-ATF1, CREB1, and CREM-and exon involvement was significantly different across different tumor types. Our targeted sequencing showed that secondary genetic events are associated with tumor type rather than fusion type. Of the 39 cases that underwent targeted NGS testing, 18 (46%) had secondary OncoKB mutations or copy number alterations (29 secondary genetic events in total), of which 15 (52%) were recurrent. Secondary recurrent, but mutually exclusive, TERT promoter and CDKN2A mutations were identified only in clear cell sarcoma (CCS) and associated with worse overall survival. CDKN2A/B homozygous deletions were recurrent in angiomatoid fibrous histiocytoma (AFH) and restricted to metastatic cases. mRNA upregulation of MITF, CDH19, PARVB, and PFKP was found in CCS, compared to AFH, and correlated with a hypomethylated profile. In contrast, S100A4 and XAF1 were differentially upregulated and hypomethylated in AFH but not CCS. Unsupervised clustering of methylation profiles revealed that CREB family translocation-associated tumors form neighboring but tight, distinct clusters. A sarcoma methylation classifier was able to accurately match 100% of CCS cases to the correct methylation class; however, it was suboptimal when applied to other histologies. In conclusion, our comprehensive genomic profiling of EWSR1/FUS::CREB translocation-associated tumors uncovered mostly histotype, rather than fusion-type associated correlations in transcript variants, prognostically significant secondary genetic alterations, and gene expression and methylation patterns.