bims-myxlip Biomed News
on Myxoid liposarcoma
Issue of 2021‒11‒28
four papers selected by
Laura Mannarino
Humanitas Research

  1. J Pers Med. 2021 Oct 24. pii: 1075. [Epub ahead of print]11(11):
      Dedifferentiated liposarcoma (DDLPS) is a highly malignant sarcoma characterized by the co-amplification of MDM2 and CDK4. Although systemic chemotherapy is recommended for unresectable or metastatic cases, DDLPS is insensitive to conventional chemotherapy, leading to an unfavorable prognosis. Therefore, novel treatment methods are urgently required. Patient-derived cell lines are essential in preclinical studies. Recently, large-scale screening studies using a number of cell lines have been actively conducted for the development of new therapeutic drugs. However, the DDLPS cell line cannot be obtained from public cell banks owing to its rarity, hindering screening studies. As such, novel DDLPS cell lines need to be established. Accordingly, this study aimed to establish a novel DDLPS cell line from surgical specimens. The cell line was named NCC-DDLPS4-C1. NCC-DDLPS4-C1 cells retained copy number alterations corresponding to the original tumors. Further, the cells demonstrated constant growth, spheroid formation, and equivalent invasiveness to MG63 osteosarcoma cells. We also conducted drug screening and integrated the results with those of the previously reported DDLPS cell lines. Consequently, we identified the histone deacetylase inhibitor romidepsin as a novel candidate drug. In conclusion, the NCC-DDLPS4-C1 cell line is a useful tool for the basic study of DDLPS.
    Keywords:  dedifferentiated liposarcoma; liposarcoma; patient-derived cell line; sarcoma
  2. Cancers (Basel). 2021 Nov 12. pii: 5668. [Epub ahead of print]13(22):
      Ewing sarcoma is a rare pediatric tumor characterized by chromosomal translocations that give rise to aberrant chimeric transcription factors (e.g., EWSR1-FLI1). EWSR1-FLI1 promotes a specific cellular transcriptional program. Therefore, the study of EWSR1-FLI1 target genes is important to identify critical pathways involved in Ewing sarcoma tumorigenesis. In this work, we focused on the transcription factors regulated by EWSR1-FLI1 in Ewing sarcoma. Transcriptomic analysis of the Ewing sarcoma cell line A673 indicated that one of the genes more strongly upregulated by EWSR1-FLI1 was FEZF1 (FEZ family zinc finger protein 1), a transcriptional repressor involved in neural cell identity. The functional characterization of FEZF1 was performed in three Ewing sarcoma cell lines (A673, SK-N-MC, SK-ES-1) through an shRNA-directed silencing approach. FEZF1 knockdown inhibited clonogenicity and cell proliferation. Finally, the analysis of the FEZF1-dependent expression profile in A673 cells showed several neural genes regulated by FEZF1 and concomitantly regulated by EWSR1-FLI1. In summary, FEZF1 is transcriptionally regulated by EWSR1-FLI1 in Ewing sarcoma cells and is involved in the regulation of neural-specific genes, which could explain the neural-like phenotype observed in several Ewing sarcoma tumors and cell lines.
    Keywords:  EWSR1-FLI1; Ewing sarcoma; FEZF11; GGAA-microsatellites
  3. Front Immunol. 2021 ;12 791206
      Osteosarcoma, Ewing sarcoma (EWS), and rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS) are the most common pediatric sarcomas. Conventional therapy for these sarcomas comprises neoadjuvant and adjuvant chemotherapy, surgical resection of the primary tumor and/or radiation therapy. Patients with metastatic, relapsed, or refractory tumors have a dismal prognosis due to resistance to these conventional therapies. Therefore, innovative therapeutic interventions, such as immunotherapy, are urgently needed. Recently, cancer research has focused attention on natural killer (NK) cells due their innate ability to recognize and kill tumor cells. Osteosarcoma, EWS and RMS, are known to be sensitive to NK cell cytotoxicity in vitro. In the clinical setting however, NK cell cytotoxicity against sarcoma cells has been mainly studied in the context of allogeneic stem cell transplantation, where a rapid immune reconstitution of NK cells plays a key role in the control of the disease, known as graft-versus-tumor effect. In this review, we discuss the evidence for the current and future strategies to enhance the NK cell-versus-pediatric sarcoma effect, with a clinical focus. The different approaches encompass enhancing antibody-dependent NK cell cytotoxicity, counteracting the NK cell mechanisms of self-tolerance, and developing adoptive NK cell therapy including chimeric antigen receptor-expressing NK cells.
    Keywords:  Ewing sarcoma; immunotherapy; natural killer; osteosarcoma; rhabdomyosarcoma
  4. Cells. 2021 Oct 26. pii: 2893. [Epub ahead of print]10(11):
      Bone sarcomas are a group of heterogeneous malignant mesenchymal tumors. Complete surgical resection is still the cornerstone of treatment, but, in the advanced/unresectable setting, their management remains challenging and not significantly improved by target- and immuno-therapies. We focused on the tyrosine kinase Eph type-A receptor-2 (EphA2), a key oncoprotein implicated in self-renewal, angiogenesis, and metastasis, in several solid tumors and thus representing a novel potential therapeutic target. Aiming at better characterizing its expression throughout the main bone sarcoma histotypes, we investigated EPHA2 expression in the Cancer Cell Lines Encyclopedia and in public datasets with clinical annotations. looking for correlations with molecular, histopathological and patients' features and clinical outcomes in a total of 232 osteosarcomas, 197 Ewing's sarcomas, and 102 chondrosarcomas. We observed EPHA2 expression in bone sarcoma cell lines. We demonstrated higher EPHA2 expression in tumor tissues when compared to normal counterparts. A significant correlation was found between EPHA2 expression and Huvos grade (osteosarcoma) and with worse overall survival (dedifferentiated chondrosarcoma). Next, we characterized EPHA2 expression and activation in bone sarcoma primary tissues and in patient-derived xenografts generated in our laboratory to verify their reliability as in vivo models of osteosarcoma, Ewing's sarcoma and chondrosarcoma. Furthermore, for the first time, we demonstrated EPHA2 expression in chondrosarcoma, suggesting its potential key role in this histotype. Indeed, we observed a significant dose-dependent antitumor effect of the EphA2-inhibitor ALW-II-41-27 in patient-derived in vitro models. In conclusion, EphA2 targeting represents a promising novel therapeutic strategy against bone sarcomas.
    Keywords:  EphA2; Ewing’s sarcoma; bioinformatics; chondrosarcoma; osteosarcoma; target therapies