bims-myxlip Biomed News
on Myxoid liposarcoma
Issue of 2021‒10‒24
three papers selected by
Laura Mannarino
Humanitas Research

  1. Hum Cell. 2021 Oct 19.
      Undifferentiated pleomorphic sarcoma (UPS), previously termed malignant fibrous histiocytoma, is one of the most aggressive sarcomas with no identifiable line of differentiation. Although the molecular mechanism of oncogenesis in UPS has not been clarified, radiation exposure is considered to be a risk factor in the development of UPS. In the treatment of UPS, surgical treatment remains the most important modality. While chemotherapy is considered in unresectable or metastatic cases, UPS is known to be refractory to conventional chemotherapy, leading to an unfavorable prognosis. To improve the clinical outcome of this condition, novel treatment methods are urgently needed. Patient-derived cell lines are essential tools in preclinical studies. However, owing to the rarity of UPS, only four UPS cell lines are publicly available. Thus, we established a novel UPS cell line, NCC-UPS3-C1, using a surgically resected tumor from a patient with radiation-associated UPS. NCC-UPS3-C1 cells had multiple genomic deletions including the tumor suppressor genes CDKN2A and CDKN2B. NCC-UPS3-C1 cells demonstrated constant growth, spheroid formation, and aggressive invasion ability. We also conducted a screening test using 214 drugs and identified that the histone deacetylase inhibitor, romidepsin, is highly effective on NCC-UPS3-C1 cells. Thus, we concluded that the NCC-UPS3-C1 cell line is a useful tool in preclinical studies for UPS.
    Keywords:  Drug screening; Patient-derived cell line; Radiation-associated sarcoma; Sarcoma; Undifferentiated pleomorphic sarcoma
  2. Cells. 2021 Oct 01. pii: 2613. [Epub ahead of print]10(10):
      (1) Background: CIC-DUX4 sarcoma is a rare mesenchymal small round cell tumor which belongs to rare cancers that occupy a significant percentage of cancer cases as a whole, despite each being rare. Importantly, each rare cancer type has different features, and thus there is a need to develop a model that mimics the features of each of these cancers. We evaluated the idea that the chicken chorioallantoic membrane assay (CAM), a convenient and versatile animal model, can be established for the CIC-DUX4 sarcoma. (2) Methods: Patient-derived cell lines of CIC-DUX4 were applied. These cells were transplanted onto the CAM membrane and tumor formation was examined by H&E staining, immunohistochemistry and Western blotting. The CAM tumor was transferred onto a fresh CAM and was also used to form organoids. Retention of the fusion gene was examined. (3) Results: H&E staining as well as molecular characterization demonstrated the formation of the CIC-DUX4 tumor on the CAM membrane. Expression of cyclin D2 and ETV4 was identified. The CAM tumor was transferred to a fresh CAM to form the second-generation CAM tumor. In addition, we were successful in forming tumor organoids using the CAM tumor. Retention of the fusion gene CIC-DUX4 in the CAM, second-generation CAM, and in the CAM-derived organoids was confirmed by RT-PCR. (4) Conclusions: The CAM assay provides a promising model for CIC-DUX4 sarcoma.
    Keywords:  CAM assay; CIC-DUX4 sarcoma; H&E staining; fusion gene; organoids; rare cancer
  3. Cancers (Basel). 2021 Oct 19. pii: 5249. [Epub ahead of print]13(20):
      Soft tissue sarcomas, depending on the subtype and grade, frequently recur and become metastatic after localized treatment. There is now great interest in applying immunotherapy to sarcomas to immuno-profile the different subtypes and immune monitor for prognosis. Our group previously showed that key immunotherapy target genes are present in sarcomas. Here, we extend our findings by demonstrating that sarcomas with a relatively high mutational load are likely to be more sensitive to immunotherapy compared to sarcomas with a lower mutation load. We also show that sarcomas with a higher mutation load are associated with the expression of key immune-related genes. We found that CD8+ T cells are present in sarcoma subtypes and that PD-L2 is highly expressed. These findings further define potential mechanisms behind the immunotherapy response of specific sarcoma subtypes and can be used to develop more optimal treatments in the future.
    Keywords:  TCGA; immune checkpoint; immunotherapy; mutational burden; next-generation sequencing; soft tissue sarcoma