bims-myxlip Biomed News
on Myxoid liposarcoma
Issue of 2021‒05‒23
three papers selected by
Laura Mannarino
Humanitas Research

  1. J Mol Med (Berl). 2021 May 20.
      Obesity and body fat distribution are important risk factors for the development of type 2 diabetes and metabolic syndrome. Evidence has accumulated that this risk is related to intrinsic differences in behavior of adipocytes in different fat depots. We recently identified LIM domain only 3 (LMO3) in human mature visceral adipocytes; however, its function in these cells is currently unknown. The aim of this study was to determine the potential involvement of LMO3-dependent pathways in the modulation of key functions of mature adipocytes during obesity. Based on a recently engineered hybrid rAAV serotype Rec2 shown to efficiently transduce both brown adipose tissue (BAT) and white adipose tissue (WAT), we delivered YFP or Lmo3 to epididymal WAT (eWAT) of C57Bl6/J mice on a high-fat diet (HFD). The effects of eWAT transduction on metabolic parameters were evaluated 10 weeks later. To further define the role of LMO3 in insulin-stimulated glucose uptake, insulin signaling, adipocyte bioenergetics, as well as endocrine function, experiments were conducted in 3T3-L1 adipocytes and newly differentiated human primary mature adipocytes, engineered for transient gain or loss of LMO3 expression, respectively. AAV transduction of eWAT results in strong and stable Lmo3 expression specifically in the adipocyte fraction over a course of 10 weeks with HFD feeding. LMO3 expression in eWAT significantly improved insulin sensitivity and healthy visceral adipose tissue expansion in diet-induced obesity, paralleled by increased serum adiponectin. In vitro, LMO3 expression in 3T3-L1 adipocytes increased PPARγ transcriptional activity, insulin-stimulated GLUT4 translocation and glucose uptake, as well as mitochondrial oxidative capacity in addition to fatty acid oxidation. Mechanistically, LMO3 induced the PPARγ coregulator Ncoa1, which was required for LMO3 to enhance glucose uptake and mitochondrial oxidative gene expression. In human mature adipocytes, LMO3 overexpression promoted, while silencing of LMO3 suppressed mitochondrial oxidative capacity. LMO3 expression in visceral adipose tissue regulates multiple genes that preserve adipose tissue functionality during obesity, such as glucose metabolism, insulin sensitivity, mitochondrial function, and adiponectin secretion. Together with increased PPARγ activity and Ncoa1 expression, these gene expression changes promote insulin-induced GLUT4 translocation, glucose uptake in addition to increased mitochondrial oxidative capacity, limiting HFD-induced adipose dysfunction. These data add LMO3 as a novel regulator improving visceral adipose tissue function during obesity. KEY MESSAGES: LMO3 increases beneficial visceral adipose tissue expansion and insulin sensitivity in vivo. LMO3 increases glucose uptake and oxidative mitochondrial activity in adipocytes. LMO3 increases nuclear coactivator 1 (Ncoa1). LMO3-enhanced glucose uptake and mitochondrial gene expression requires Ncoa1.
    Keywords:  LMO3; Obesity; Visceral adipose tissue
  2. Nucleic Acids Res. 2021 May 21. 49(9): 5038-5056
      ERG family proteins (ERG, FLI1 and FEV) are a subfamily of ETS transcription factors with key roles in physiology and development. In Ewing sarcoma, the oncogenic fusion protein EWS-FLI1 regulates both transcription and alternative splicing of pre-messenger RNAs. However, whether wild-type ERG family proteins might regulate splicing is unknown. Here, we show that wild-type ERG proteins associate with spliceosomal components, are found on nascent RNAs, and induce alternative splicing when recruited onto a reporter minigene. Transcriptomic analysis revealed that ERG and FLI1 regulate large numbers of alternative spliced exons (ASEs) enriched with RBFOX2 motifs and co-regulated by this splicing factor. ERG and FLI1 are associated with RBFOX2 via their conserved carboxy-terminal domain, which is present in EWS-FLI1. Accordingly, EWS-FLI1 is also associated with RBFOX2 and regulates ASEs enriched in RBFOX2 motifs. However, in contrast to wild-type ERG and FLI1, EWS-FLI1 often antagonizes RBFOX2 effects on exon inclusion. In particular, EWS-FLI1 reduces RBFOX2 binding to the ADD3 pre-mRNA, thus increasing its long isoform, which represses the mesenchymal phenotype of Ewing sarcoma cells. Our findings reveal a RBFOX2-mediated splicing regulatory function of wild-type ERG family proteins, that is altered in EWS-FLI1 and contributes to the Ewing sarcoma cell phenotype.
  3. NPJ Precis Oncol. 2021 May 21. 5(1): 43
      Sarcomas harboring EWSR1-NFATc2 fusions have historically been categorized and treated as Ewing sarcoma. Emerging evidence suggests unique molecular characteristics and chemotherapy sensitivities in EWSR1-NFATc2 fusion positive sarcomas. Comprehensive genomic profiles of 1024 EWSR1 fusion positive sarcomas, including 14 EWSR1-NFATc2 fusions, were identified in the FoundationCore® database. Additional data from the Gene Expression Omnibus, the Genomics of Drug Sensitivity in Cancer and The Cancer Genome Atlas datasets were included for analysis. EWSR1-NFATc2 fusion positive sarcomas were genomically distinct from traditional Ewing sarcoma and demonstrated upregulation of the mTOR pathway. We also present a case of a 58-year-old male patient with metastatic EWSR1-NFATc2 fusion positive sarcoma who achieved 47 months of disease stabilization when treated with combination mTOR and VEGF inhibition. EWSR1-NFATc2 fusion positive sarcomas are molecularly distinct entities with overactive mTOR signaling; which may be therapeutically targetable. These findings support the use of precision medicine in the Ewing family of tumors.