bims-myxlip Biomed News
on Myxoid liposarcoma
Issue of 2021‒03‒21
seven papers selected by
Laura Mannarino
Humanitas Research

  1. Cancer Med. 2021 Mar 13.
      BACKGROUND: This observational, retrospective effort across Europe, US, Australia, and Asia aimed to assess the activity of systemic therapies in EHE, an ultra-rare sarcoma, marked by WWTR1-CAMTA1 or YAP1-TFE3 fusions.METHODS: Twenty sarcoma reference centres contributed data. Patients with advanced EHE diagnosed from 2000 onwards and treated with systemic therapies, were selected. Local pathologic review and molecular confirmation were required. Radiological response was retrospectively assessed by local investigators according to RECIST. Progression free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) were estimated by Kaplan-Meier method.
    RESULTS: Overall, 73 patients were included; 21 had more than one treatment. Thirty-three patients received anthracyclines regimens, achieving 1 (3%) partial response (PR), 25 (76%) stable disease (SD), 7 (21%) progressive disease (PD). The median (m-) PFS and m-OS were 5.5 and 14.3 months respectively. Eleven patients received paclitaxel, achieving 1 (9%) PR, 6 (55%) SD, 4 (36%) PD. The m-PFS and m-OS were 2.9 and 18.6 months, respectively. Twelve patients received pazopanib, achieving 3 (25%) SD, 9 (75%) PD. The m-PFS and m-OS were.2.9 and 8.5 months, respectively. Fifteen patients received INF-α 2b, achieving 1 (7%) PR, 11 (73%) SD, 3 (20%) PD. The m-PFS and m-OS were 8.9 months and 64.3, respectively. Among 27 patients treated with other regimens, 1 PR (ifosfamide) and 9 SD (5 gemcitabine +docetaxel, 2 oral cyclophosphamide, 2 others) were reported.
    CONCLUSION: Systemic therapies available for advanced sarcomas have limited activity in EHE. The identification of new active compounds, especially for rapidly progressive cases, is acutely needed.
    Keywords:  anthracycline; chemotherapy; epithelioid haemangioendothelioma; interferon; paclitaxel; pazopanib
  2. Rare Tumors. 2021 ;13 2036361320986655
      Sarcomas are a heterogenous group of malignant tumors with origin or mesenchymal differentiation, they comprise 1-2% of all solid tumors. Retroperitoneum is the second most frequent site affected. Prognosis is worse compared to the limbs, with a 5y OS of 36-58%, and 50-60% patients will relapse. Dedifferentiated liposarcomas (ddLPS) are more aggressive, it is known that presence of a de-differentiated component increases the probability of distant recurrence and lowers OS. There is little information about the specific impact of each type of de-differentiation. To determine if the presence of myogenic differentiation markers in DDLPS is an adverse prognostic factor. A retrospective, observational, analytic cohort study was performed. Cases identified from the electronic clinical files from the National Cancer Institute in Mexico City, we included cases from January 1st 2005 to December 31st 2016. We correlated the presence of expression of myogenic markers (Smooth muscle actin, Calponin, H-caldesmon, Desmin and Myogenin) in the dedifferentiated component of DDLPS with overall survival and surgical outcomes. One hundred and forty-three cases were analyzed. Eighty-two were liposarcomas, and 38 had a dedifferentiated component. Of these 38 cases, 21(55.3%) were males and, 17(44.7%) were females. Median age was 54.1(27-79) years, median tumor size was 28 cm (13-56). Most patients had locally advanced disease: 32(84.2%) were in stage IIIB. 2.6% had metastatic disease and 5(13.2%) had stage Ib at diagnosis. Myogenic marker expression was found in 18.4% of cases; these patients had a worse median survival than cases with no myogenic expression: 18 months (95% CI 15.4-20.5) vs 32 months (95% CI 21.8-42.1) p = 0.01, we also found a relation with higher postoperative morbidity in these cases (p = 0.045). The presence of myogenic differentiation markers might be associated with a worse prognosis, in our series it corelated with worse OS, however it is not a common event. Relation with surgical morbidity is to be analyzed in further studies.
    Keywords:  Retroperitoneal sarcoma; liposarcoma; myogenic dedifferentiation
  3. Eur Radiol. 2021 Mar 13.
      OBJECTIVE: The application of [18F]FDG PET/CT in predicting histologic response to induction chemotherapy in patients with Ewing sarcoma (EWS) has been proposed using the values of pre-post treatment SUVmax as a referral parameter, although with heterogeneous results. The aim of this retrospective study was to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of [18F]FDG PET/CT volumetric parameters (metabolic tumour volume (MTV) and total lesion glycolysis (TLG)) as compared to SUVmax to predict response to chemotherapy and clinical outcome in patients with localised EWS of bone and soft-tissue.METHODS: Twenty-eight patients with non-metastatic EWS of bone (n = 20) and soft tissues (n = 8) who underwent a [18F]FDG PET/CT scan before (PET1) and after induction chemotherapy (PET2) were enclosed in the analysis. Values of PET metrics (SUVmax, MTV, TLG) at diagnosis and after neoadjuvant chemotherapy as well as the percentage change between PET1 and PET2 (ΔSUV, ΔMTV and ΔTLG) were correlated to histological response and to progression-free survival (PFS).
    RESULTS: ΔTLG (cut-off: -60%) is the best predictor for histologic response with 100% sensitivity and 77.8% specificity. MTV1 > 33.4 cm3 and TLG1 > 112 were also associated with a favourable histologic response (sensitivity 80% and specificity 77.8% for both). On multivariate analysis, SUV2 (> 3.3) and ΔTLG (< -18%) were independent predictors of worse PFS.
    CONCLUSIONS: [18F]FDG PET/CT could accurately predict histologic response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy in patients with EWS, also showing a possible prognostic value for future disease relapse.
    KEY POINTS: • The variation of the PET parameter tumour lesion glycolysis (TLG) can predict the histologic response to induction chemotherapy (sensitivity 100%, specificity 77.8%), in patients with Ewing sarcoma. • The percentage variation of TLG and the value of the SUVmax at PET scan after chemotherapy show a prognostic role for future disease relapse. The combination of both the parameters identifies three prognostic classes of patients with low, intermediate and high risk of disease relapse.
    Keywords:  Ewing sarcoma; Fluorine-18-fluorodeoxyglucose; Induction chemotherapy; PET/CT scan; Patient outcome assessment
  4. Mol Cancer Res. 2021 Mar 19. pii: molcanres.0679.2020. [Epub ahead of print]
      Ewing sarcomas are driven by EWS-ETS fusions, most commonly EWS-FLI1, which promote widespread metabolic reprogramming, including activation of serine biosynthesis. We previously reported that serine biosynthesis is also activated in Ewing sarcoma by the scaffolding protein menin through as yet undefined mechanisms. Here, we investigated whether EWS-FLI1 and/or menin orchestrate serine biosynthesis via modulation of ATF4, a stress-response gene that acts as a master transcriptional regulator of serine biosynthesis in other tumors. Our results show that in Ewing sarcoma, ATF4 levels are high and that ATF4 modulates transcription of core serine synthesis pathway (SSP) genes. Inhibition of either EWS-FLI1 or menin leads to loss of ATF4, and this is associated with diminished expression of SSP transcripts and proteins. We identified and validated an EWS-FLI1 binding site at the ATF4 promoter, indicating that the fusion can directly activate ATF4 transcription. In contrast, our results suggest that menin-dependent regulation of ATF4 is mediated by transcriptional and post-transcriptional mechanisms. Importantly, our data also reveal that the downregulation of SSP genes that occurs in the context of EWS-FLI1 or menin loss is indicative of broader inhibition of ATF4-dependent transcription. Moreover, we find that menin inhibition similarly leads to loss of ATF4 and the ATF4-dependent transcriptional signature in MLL-rearranged B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia, extending our findings to another cancer in which menin serves an oncogenic role. Implications: These studies provide new insights into metabolic reprogramming in Ewing sarcoma and also uncover a previously undescribed role for menin in the regulation of ATF4.
  5. Mod Pathol. 2021 Mar 17.
      Myxoid liposarcoma (MLPS) is a malignant adipocytic neoplasm with predilection for the extremities. MLPS is genetically defined by a t(12;16) translocation leading to FUS-DDIT3 (95%) or more rarely t(12;22) leading to EWSR1-DDIT3. Low-grade MLPS is characterized by bland spindle cells within a myxoid matrix containing delicate "chicken-wire" vasculature, whereas high-grade ("round cell") MLPS may be indistinguishable from other round cell sarcomas. In many cases, cytogenetic or molecular genetic techniques are applied to confirm the diagnosis. A recent study documented the utility of DDIT3 immunohistochemistry (IHC) in the differential diagnosis of adipocytic and myxoid soft tissue tumors. The purpose of this study was to evaluate DDIT3 IHC as a surrogate for molecular testing in high-grade MLPS. IHC was performed using a mouse monoclonal antibody directed against the N-terminus of DDIT3 on whole tissue sections from 50 high-grade MLPS cases and 319 histologic mimics used as controls (170 on whole tissue sections and 149 on a tissue microarray). Histologic mimics included Ewing sarcoma, CIC-rearranged sarcoma, sarcomas with BCOR genetic alterations, poorly differentiated synovial sarcoma, alveolar and embryonal rhabdomyosarcomas, mesenchymal chondrosarcoma, desmoplastic small round cell tumor, and neuroblastoma. Nuclear staining in >5% of cells was considered positive. By IHC, 48 (96%) high-grade MLPS showed strong diffuse nuclear staining for DDIT3. Of the controls, 2% of cases were positive, with no more than 25% nuclear staining. An additional 19% of control cases displayed less than 5% nuclear staining. Overall, DDIT3 IHC showed 96% sensitivity and 98% specificity for high-grade MLPS; strong, diffuse staining is also 96% sensitive but is 100% specific. IHC using an antibody directed against the N-terminus of DDIT3 is highly sensitive and specific for high-grade MLPS among histologic mimics and could replace molecular genetic testing in many cases, although limited labeling may be seen in a range of other tumor types.
  6. Front Endocrinol (Lausanne). 2021 ;12 624112
      The proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ), a member of the nuclear receptor superfamily, is one of the most extensively studied ligand-inducible transcription factors. Since its identification in the early 1990s, PPARγ is best known for its critical role in adipocyte differentiation, maintenance, and function. Emerging evidence indicates that PPARγ is also important for the maturation and function of various immune system-related cell types, such as monocytes/macrophages, dendritic cells, and lymphocytes. Furthermore, PPARγ controls cell proliferation in various other tissues and organs, including colon, breast, prostate, and bladder, and dysregulation of PPARγ signaling is linked to tumor development in these organs. Recent studies have shed new light on PPARγ (dys)function in these three biological settings, showing unified and diverse mechanisms of action. Classical transactivation-where PPARγ activates genes upon binding to PPAR response elements as a heterodimer with RXRα-is important in all three settings, as underscored by natural loss-of-function mutations in FPLD3 and loss- and gain-of-function mutations in tumors. Transrepression-where PPARγ alters gene expression independent of DNA binding-is particularly relevant in immune cells. Interestingly, gene translocations resulting in fusion of PPARγ with other gene products, which are unique to specific carcinomas, present a third mode of action, as they potentially alter PPARγ's target gene profile. Improved understanding of the molecular mechanism underlying PPARγ activity in the complex regulatory networks in metabolism, cancer, and inflammation may help to define novel potential therapeutic strategies for prevention and treatment of obesity, diabetes, or cancer.
    Keywords:  PPARy; adipocyte; cancer cell; immune cell; mechanism
  7. Curr Opin Hematol. 2021 Mar 17.
      PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Transcription of erythroid-specific genes is regulated by the three-dimensional structure and composition of chromatin, which dynamically changes during erythroid differentiation. Chromatin organization and dynamics are regulated by several epigenetic mechanisms involving DNA (de-)methylation, posttranslational modifications (PTMs) of histones, chromatin-associated structural proteins, and higher-order structural changes and interactions. This review addresses examples of recent developments in several areas delineating the interface of chromatin regulation and erythroid-specific lineage transcription.RECENT FINDINGS: We survey and discuss recent studies that focus on the erythroid chromatin landscape, erythroid enhancer-promotor interactions, super-enhancer functionality, the role of chromatin modifiers and epigenetic crosstalk, as well as the progress in mapping red blood cell (RBC) trait-associated genetic variants within cis-regulatory elements (CREs) identified in genome-wide association study (GWAS) efforts as a step toward determining their impact on erythroid-specific gene expression.
    SUMMARY: As one of the best characterized and accessible cell differentiation systems, erythropoiesis has been at the forefront of studies aiming to conceptualize how chromatin dynamics regulate transcription. New emerging technologies that bring a significantly enhanced spatial and temporal resolution of chromatin structure, and allow investigation of small cell numbers, have advanced our understanding of chromatin dynamics during erythroid differentiation in vivo.