bims-myxlip Biomed News
on Myxoid liposarcoma
Issue of 2021‒02‒21
three papers selected by
Laura Mannarino
Mario Negri Institute

  1. Front Immunol. 2020 ;11 621225
      Natural killer (NK) cells are endowed with germline-encoded receptors that enable them to detect and kill malignant cells without prior priming. Over the years, overwhelming evidence has identified an essential role for NK cells in tumor immune surveillance. More recently, clinical trials have also highlighted their potential in therapeutic settings. Yet, data show that NK cells can be dysregulated within the tumor microenvironment (TME), rendering them ineffective in eradicating the cancer cells. This has been attributed to immune suppressive factors, including the tumor cells per se, stromal cells, regulatory T cells, and soluble factors such as reactive oxygen species and cytokines. However, the TME also hosts myeloid cells such as dendritic cells, macrophages, neutrophils, and myeloid-derived suppressor cells that influence NK cell function. Although the NK-myeloid cell crosstalk can promote anti-tumor responses, myeloid cells in the TME often dysregulate NK cells via direct cell-to-cell interactions down-regulating key NK cell receptors, depletion of nutrients and growth factors required for NK cell growth, and secretion of metabolites, chemokines and cytokines that ultimately alter NK cell trafficking, survival, and cytotoxicity. Here, we review the complex functions of myeloid-derived cytokines in both supporting and suppressing NK cells in the TME and how NK cell-derived cytokines can influence myeloid subsets. We discuss challenges related to these interactions in unleashing the full potential of endogenous and adoptively infused NK cells. Finally, we present strategies aiming at improving NK cell-based cancer immunotherapies via pathways that are involved in the NK-myeloid cell crosstalk in the TME.
    Keywords:  cancer immunotherapy, tumor immunity; cytokines; myeloid cells; natural killer (NK) cells; tumor microenvironment
  2. Cells. 2021 Jan 25. pii: 231. [Epub ahead of print]10(2):
      Regulated cell death (RCD) has always been considered a tolerogenic event. Immunogenic cell death (ICD) occurs as a consequence of tumour cell death accompanied by the release of damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs), triggering an immune response. ICD plays a major role in stimulating the function of the immune system in cancer during chemotherapy and radiotherapy. ICD can therefore represent one of the routes to boost anticancer immune responses. According to the recommendations of the Nomenclature Committee on Cell Death (2018), apoptosis (type I cell death) and necrosis (type II cell death) represent are not the only types of RCD, which also includes necroptosis, pyroptosis, ferroptosis and others. Specific downstream signalling molecules and death-inducing stimuli can regulate distinct forms of ICD, which develop and promote the immune cell response. Dying cells deliver different potential immunogenic signals, such as DAMPs, which are able to stimulate the immune system. The acute exposure of DAMPs can prime antitumour immunity by inducing activation of antigen-presenting cells (APC), such as dendritic cells (DC), leading to the downstream response by cytotoxic T cells and natural killer cells (NK). As ICD represents an important target to direct and develop new pharmacological interventions, the identification of bioactive natural products, which are endowed with low side effects, higher tolerability and preferentially inducing immunogenic programmed cell death, represents a priority in biomedical research. The ability of ICD to drive the immune response depends on two major factors, neither of which is intrinsic to cell death: 'Antigenicity and adjuvanticity'. Indeed, the use of natural ICD-triggering molecules, alone or in combination with different (immuno)therapies, can result in higher efficacy and tolerability. Here, we focused on natural (marine) compounds, particularly on marine microalgae derived molecules such as exopolysaccharides, sulphated polysaccharides, glycopeptides, glycolipids, phospholipids, that are endowed with ICD-inducing properties and sulfavants. Here, we discuss novel and repurposed small-molecule ICD triggers, as well as their ability to target important molecular pathways including the IL-6, TNF-α and interferons (IFNs), leading to immune stimulation, which could be used alone or in combinatorial immunotherapeutic strategies in cancer prevention and therapies.
    Keywords:  algae; immunogenic cell death; marine drugs; natural compounds; prevention
  3. Front Genet. 2021 ;12 620705
      Aim: Immune cells that infiltrate the tumor microenvironment (TME) are associated with cancer prognosis. The aim of the current study was to identify TME related gene signatures related to the prognosis of sarcoma (SARC) by using the data from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA).Methods: Immune and stromal scores were calculated by estimation of stromal and immune cells in malignant tumor tissues using expression data algorithms. The least absolute shrinkage and selection operator (lasso) based cox model was then used to select hub survival genes. A risk score model and nomogram were used to predict the overall survival of patients with SARC.
    Results: We selected 255 patients with SARC for our analysis. The Kaplan-Meier method found that higher immune (p = 0.0018) or stromal scores (p = 0.0022) were associated with better prognosis of SARC. The estimated levels of CD4+ (p = 0.0012) and CD8+ T cells (p = 0.017) via the tumor immune estimation resource were higher in patients with SARC with better overall survival. We identified 393 upregulated genes and 108 downregulated genes (p < 0.05, fold change >4) intersecting between the immune and stromal scores based on differentially expressed gene (DEG) analysis. The univariate Cox analysis of each intersecting DEG and subsequent lasso-based Cox model identified 11 hub survival genes (MYOC, NNAT, MEDAG, TNFSF14, MYH11, NRXN1, P2RY13, CXCR3, IGLV3-25, IGHV1-46, and IGLV2-8). Then, a hub survival gene-based risk score gene signature was constructed; higher risk scores predicted worse SARC prognosis (p < 0.0001). A nomogram including the risk scores, immune/stromal scores and clinical factors showed a good prediction value for SARC overall survival (C-index = 0.716). Finally, connectivity mapping analysis identified that the histone deacetylase inhibitors trichostatin A and vorinostat might have the potential to reverse the harmful TME for patients with SARC.
    Conclusion: The current study provided new indications for the association between the TME and SARC. Lists of TME related survival genes and potential therapeutic drugs were identified for SARC.
    Keywords:  ESTIMATE algorithms; HDAC inhibitors; TCGA; nomogram; sarcoma; tumor microenvironment