bims-mricoa Biomed News
on MRI contrast agents
Issue of 2021‒11‒21
four papers selected by
Merve Yavuz
Bilkent University

  1. ACS Biomater Sci Eng. 2021 Nov 17.
      Iron oxide nanoparticles (IONPs) have gained increasing attention in various biomedical and industrial sectors due to their physicochemical and magnetic properties. In the biomedical field, IONPs are being developed for enzyme/protein immobilization, magnetofection, cell labeling, DNA detection, and tissue engineering. However, in some established areas, such as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), magnetic drug targeting (MDT), magnetic fluid hyperthermia (MFH), immunomagnetic separation (IMS), and magnetic particle imaging (MPI), IONPs have crossed from the research bench, received clinical approval, and have been commercialized. Additionally, in industrial sectors IONP-based fluids (ferrofluids) have been marketed in electronic and mechanical devices for some time. This review explores the historical evolution of IONPs to their current state in biomedical and industrial applications.
    Keywords:  antitumor agents; drug delivery; imaging agents; magnetic properties; nanoparticles
  2. Oncol Ther. 2021 Nov 15.
      A severe disease, cancer is caused by the exponential and uncontrolled growth of cells, leading to organ dysfunction as well as disorders. This disease has been recognized as one of the significant challenges to health and medicine. Various treatment procedures for cancer are associated with diverse side effects; the most conventional cancer treatments include chemotherapy, surgery, and radiotherapy, among others. Numerous adverse and side effects, low specificity and sensitivity, narrow therapeutic windows, and, recently, the emergence of tumor cells resistant to such treatments have been documented as the shortcomings of conventional treatment strategies. As a group of prokaryotic microorganisms, bacteria have great potential for use in cancer therapy. Currently, utilizing bacteria for cancer treatment has attracted the attention of scientists. The high potential of bacteria to become non-pathogenic by genetic manipulation, their distinguished virulence factors (which can be used as weapons against tumors), their ability to proliferate in tissues, and the contingency to control their population by administrating antibiotics, etc., have made bacteria viable candidates and live micro-medication for cancer therapies. However, the possible cytotoxicity impacts of bacteria, their inability to entirely lyse cancerous cells, as well as the probability of mutations in their genomes are among the significant challenges of bacteria-based methods for cancer treatment. In this article, various available data on bacterial therapeutics, along with their pros and cons, are discussed.
    Keywords:  Bacterial therapeutics; Bacteriotherapy; Cancer treatment; Immunotherapy; Microbial metabolites; Multimodal therapies
  3. Microb Cell Fact. 2021 Nov 16. 20(1): 211
      Many applications of microbial synthetic biology, such as metabolic engineering and biocomputing, are increasing in design complexity. Implementing complex tasks in single populations can be a challenge because large genetic circuits can be burdensome and difficult to optimize. To overcome these limitations, microbial consortia can be engineered to distribute complex tasks among multiple populations. Recent studies have made substantial progress in programming microbial consortia for both basic understanding and potential applications. Microbial consortia have been designed through diverse strategies, including programming mutualistic interactions, using programmed population control to prevent overgrowth of individual populations, and spatial segregation to reduce competition. Here, we highlight the role of microbial consortia in the advances of metabolic engineering, biofilm production for engineered living materials, biocomputing, and biosensing. Additionally, we discuss the challenges for future research in microbial consortia.
  4. Chem Sci. 2021 Oct 20. 12(40): 13273-13282
      While cancer now impacts the health and well-being of more of the human population than ever before, the exponential rise in antimicrobial resistant (AMR) bacterial infections means AMR is predicted to become one of the greatest future threats to human health. It is therefore vital that novel therapeutic strategies are developed that can be used in the treatment of both cancer and AMR infections. Whether the target of a therapeutic agent be inside the cell or in the cell membrane, it must either interact with or cross this phospholipid barrier to elicit the desired cellular effect. Here we summarise findings from published research into the phospholipid membrane composition of bacterial and cancer cell lines and biological samples from cancer patients. These data not only highlight key differences in the membrane composition of these biological samples, but also the methods used to elucidate and report the results of this analogous research between the microbial and cancer fields.