bims-mosdis Biomed News
on Mosquito distribution and disease
Issue of 2021‒11‒07
nineteen papers selected by
Richard Halfpenny
Staffordshire University

  1. Parasit Vectors. 2021 Nov 03. 14(1): 565
      BACKGROUND: In Europe, Aedes albopictus is an important vector of chikungunya virus and Dirofilaria nematodes and has been involved in local autochthonous circulation of dengue and Zika viruses. Due to the ongoing spread, targeted field surveillance at potential points of entry of invasive Aedes mosquitoes was initiated by the Republic of Moldova in 2020 as part of the transboundary "Invasive Aedes Mosquitoes COST-Action project."METHODS: In 2020, ovitraps were positioned at each of three locations: the border crossing to Romania in Leuşeni (Hancesti region), Chişinӑu International Airport and Chişinӑu Botanical Garden.
    RESULTS: A total of 188 Aedes spp. eggs were collected at the Chişinӑu International Airport between August and September 2020. Twenty-three adults reared in the laboratory were identified morphologically as Ae. albopictus (Skuse, 1895), and 12 selected specimens were confirmed by molecular barcoding of the cytochrome oxidase subunit I gene region. In addition, one adult Ae. albopictus female at the same site was caught with a manual aspirator.
    CONCLUSIONS: This is the first documented report of Ae. albopictus in the Republic of Moldova. The presence of immature and adult stages indicates the local reproduction of the species in the country. Therefore, it is crucial to extend and strengthen surveillance of the invasive Aedes mosquitoes to prevent Ae. albopictus and other exotic mosquito species from becoming established in the Republic of Moldova.
    Keywords:  Aedes albopictus; Asian tiger mosquito; Entomological survey; Invasive species; Republic of Moldova
  2. Parasit Vectors. 2021 Nov 03. 14(1): 566
      BACKGROUND: A number of zoonotic mosquito-borne viruses have emerged in Europe in recent decades. Batai virus (BATV), a member of the genus Orthobunyavirus, is one example of a relatively newly emerged mosquito-borne virus, having been detected in mosquitoes and livestock. We conducted vector competency studies on three mosquito species at a low temperature to assess whether Aedes and Culex mosquito species are susceptible to infection with BATV.METHODS: Colonised lines of Aedes aegypti and Culex pipiens and a wild-caught species, Aedes detritus, were orally inoculated with BATV strain 53.2, originally isolated from mosquitoes trapped in Germany in 2009. Groups of blood-fed female mosquitoes were maintained at 20 °C for 7 or 14 days. Individual mosquitoes were screened for the presence of BATV in body, leg and saliva samples for evidence of infection, dissemination and transmission, respectively. BATV RNA was detected by reverse transcription-PCR, and positive results confirmed by virus isolation in Vero cells.
    RESULTS: Aedes detritus was highly susceptible to BATV, with an infection prevalence of ≥ 80% at both measurement time points. Disseminated infections were recorded in 30.7-41.6% of Ae. detritus, and evidence of virus transmission with BATV in saliva samples (n = 1, days post-infection: 14) was observed. Relatively lower rates of infection for Ae. aegypti and Cx. pipiens were observed, with no evidence of virus dissemination or transmission at either time point.
    CONCLUSIONS: This study shows that Ae. detritus may be a competent vector for BATV at 20 °C, whereas Ae. aegypti and Cx. pipiens were not competent. Critically, the extrinsic incubation period appears to be ≤  7 days for Ae. detritus, which may increase the onward transmissibility potential of BATV in these populations.
    Keywords:  Aedes; Batai virus; Culex; Emerging infectious diseases; Vector competence; Zoonosis
  3. Braz J Microbiol. 2021 Nov 02.
      Medically important arboviruses such as dengue virus (DENV), Zika virus (ZIKV), and chikungunya virus (CHIKV) are primarily transmitted by the globally distributed mosquito Aedes aegypti. Increasing evidence suggests that the transmission of some viruses can be influenced by mosquito-specific and mosquito-borne viruses. Advancements in high-throughput sequencing (HTS) and bioinformatics have expanded our knowledge on the richness of viruses harbored by mosquitoes. HTS was used to characterize the presence of virus sequences in wild-caught adult Ae. aegypti from Tocantins (TO) state, Brazil. Samples of mosquitoes were collected in four cities of Tocantins state and submitted to RNA isolation, followed by sequencing at an Illumina HiSeq platform. Our results showed initially by Krona the presence of 3% of the sequenced reads belonging to the viral database. After further analysis, the virus sequences were found to have homology to two viral families found in insects Phenuiviridae and Metaviridae. Three possible viral strains including putative new viruses were detected and named Phasi Charoen-like phasivirus isolate To-1 (PCLV To-1), Aedes aegypti To virus 1 (AAToV1), and Aedes aegypti To virus 2 (AAToV2). The results presented in this work contribute to the growing knowledge about the diversity of viruses in mosquitoes and might be useful for future studies on the interaction between insect-specific viruses and arboviruses.
    Keywords:  Aedes aegypti; Emerging infectious diseases; Insect-specific viruses; Metaviridade; Mosquito virome; Phenuiviridae
  4. Epidemiol Prev. 2021 ;45(5): In press
      The relevant ecological changes due to the anthropological pressure on the planet is causing reactions in the biological systems, which we must understand and characterize at the local scale to assist the adoption of suitable decisions in the public health risk management. The project presented in this paper is focused on the vector-borne diseases, mainly transmitted by mosquitoes. The species of mosquito currently playing an active role of public health importance in Italy are Aedes albopictus, as a vector of Chikungunya, Dengue and Zika viruses, as well as Culex pipiens, as a vector of West Nile and Usutu viruses. Predictive models are indicating the risk of introduction and establishment in the Mediterranean basin of Aedes aegypti, which is causing a mayor concern. The project has been conducted by the Emilia-Romagna, Piemonte, Veneto, Marche and Sicilia Regions, together with the Italian National Health Institute. The aim was to develop and pilot testing new approaches and technological tools possibly assisting the public health system in the management of the risk. The activities have been organized on six specific objectives: 1. Development and field testing of guidelines for the surveillance of invasive mosquito species; 2. Creation of risk maps for Chikungunya, Dengue and Zika viruses based on the quantitative monitoring of Aedes albopictus populations; 3. Shaping web platform models assisting the sharing of data from/to actors involved in the integrated surveillance of West Nile at the regional level; 4. Developing communication formats dealing with vector borne diseases addressing citizen and specific categories; 5. Approaching the cost-benefit analysis in the view to assist decision makers; 6. Sero-surveillance on arboviruses not included in the Ministry directive (Tick Borne Encephalitis and Toscana virus). The achieved results are presented and the acquired experience is made available to promote the adoptions on a larger scale of the approaches and methods to be certainly adapted in the specific contexts. The one health approach seems suitable to address the necessities emerging in this field by taking into consideration the different triggers shaping the dynamics we are observing.
    Keywords:  Aedes albopictus; Chikungunya; Dengue; West Nile; one health; vector-borne diseases
  5. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2021 Nov;15(11): e0009839
      Dengue virus (DENV) and Zika virus (ZIKV) belong to the same viral family, the Flaviviridae. They cause recurring threats to the public health systems of tropical countries such as Brazil. The primary Brazilian vector of both viruses is the mosquito Aedes aegypti. After the mosquito ingests a blood meal from an infected person, the viruses infect and replicate in the midgut, disseminate to secondary tissues and reach the salivary gland (SG), where they are ready to be transmitted to a vertebrate host. It is thought that the intrinsic discrepancies among mosquitoes could affect their ability to deal with viral infections. This study confirms that the DENV and ZIKV infection patterns of nine Ae. aegypti field populations found in geographically separate health districts of an endemic Brazilian city vary. We analyzed the infection rate, disseminated infection, vector competence, and viral load through quantitative PCR. Mosquitoes were challenged using the membrane-feeding assay technique and were tested seven and fourteen days post-infection (early and late infection phases, respectively). The infection responses varied among the Ae. aegypti populations for both flaviviruses in the two infection phases. There was no similarity between DENV and ZIKV vector competencies or viral loads. According to the results of our study, the risk of viral transmission overtime after infection either increases or remains unaltered in ZIKV infected vectors. However, the risk may increase, decrease, or remain unaltered in DENV-infected vectors depending on the mosquito population. For both flaviviruses, the viral load persisted in the body even until the late infection phase. In contrast to DENV, the ZIKV accumulated in the SG over time in all the mosquito populations. These findings are novel and may help direct the development of control strategies to fight dengue and Zika outbreaks in endemic regions, and provide a warning about the importance of understanding mosquito responses to arboviral infections.
  6. J Med Entomol. 2021 Oct 27. pii: tjab179. [Epub ahead of print]
      Arboviruses including dengue, Zika, and chikungunya are amongst the most significant public health concerns worldwide. Arbovirus control relies on the use of insecticides to control the vector mosquito Aedes aegypti (Linnaeus), the success of which is threatened by widespread insecticide resistance. The work presented here profiled the gene expression of Ae. aegypti larvae from field populations of Ae. aegypti with differential susceptibility to temephos originating from two Colombian urban locations, Bello and Cúcuta, previously reported to have distinctive disease incidence, socioeconomics, and climate. We demonstrated that an exclusive field-to-lab (Ae. aegypti strain New Orleans) comparison generates an over estimation of differential gene expression (DGE) and that the inclusion of a geographically relevant field control yields a more discrete, and likely, more specific set of genes. The composition of the obtained DGE profiles is varied, with commonly reported resistance associated genes including detoxifying enzymes having only a small representation. We identify cuticle biosynthesis, ion exchange homeostasis, an extensive number of long noncoding RNAs, and chromatin modelling among the differentially expressed genes in field resistant Ae. aegypti larvae. It was also shown that temephos resistant larvae undertake further gene expression responses when temporarily exposed to temephos. The results from the sampling triangulation approach here contribute a discrete DGE profiling with reduced noise that permitted the observation of a greater gene diversity, increasing the number of potential targets for the control of insecticide resistant mosquitoes and widening our knowledge base on the complex phenotypic network of the Ae. aegypti response to insecticides.
    Keywords:   Aedes aegypti ; RNA-Seq; gene expression; insecticide resistance
  7. Malar J. 2021 Oct 30. 20(1): 427
      BACKGROUND: Until recently, relatively little research has been done on how mosquitoes behave around the occupied bed net in the indoor environment. This has been partly remedied in the last few years through laboratory and field studies, most of these using video methods and mosquito flight tracking. Despite these recent advances, understanding of the mosquito-bed net environment system, and the principles that underlie mosquito behaviour within it, is limited. This project aimed to further understand this system by studying the effects of gently moving air (such as might be introduced through room design to make the indoor environment more comfortable and conducive to ITN use) and warmer vs. cooler ambient conditions on mosquito activity around ITNs and other bed nets.METHODS: The activity of colonized female Anopheles gambiae around an occupied untreated bed net set up in a mosquito-proof tent in a large laboratory space was recorded under different ambient conditions using a laser detection-video recording system. Conditions tested were 'cool' (23-25 °C) and 'warm' (27-30 °C) air temperatures and the presence or absence of a cross-flow produced by a small central processing unit (CPU) fan pointed at the side of the net so that it produced a 'low-' or 'high-' speed cross-draught (approx. 0.1 and 0.4 m/s, respectively). Near-net activity in recordings was measured using video image analysis.
    RESULTS: In cool, still air conditions, more than 80% of near-net activity by An. gambiae occurred on the net roof. Introduction of the low-speed or high-speed cross-draught resulted in an almost total drop off in roof activity within 1 to 2 min and, in the case of the high-speed cross-draught, a complementary increase in activity on the net side. In warm, still conditions, near-net activity appeared to be lower overall than in cool, still air conditions and to be relatively less focussed on the roof. Introduction of the high-speed cross-draught in warm conditions resulted in a decrease in roof activity and increase in side activity though neither effect was statistically significant.
    CONCLUSIONS: Results are interpreted in terms of the flow of the stimulatory odour plume produced by the net occupant which, consistent with established principles of fluid dynamics, appears to rise quickly and remain more intact above the net occupant in cool, still air than in warm, still air. Cross-draught effects are ascribed to the changes they cause in the flow of the host odour plume as opposed to mosquito flight directly. The implications of these results for house designs that promote indoor air movement, on bed net design, and on other vector control measures are discussed. How mosquitoes approach a net is influenced both by indoor temperature and ventilation and their interaction. This system is in need of further study.
  8. Saudi Med J. 2021 Nov;42(11): 1173-1179
      OBJECTIVES: To study the epidemiology of dengue incidence and understand the dynamics of dengue transmission in Makkah, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA), between 2017-2019.METHODS: This is a cross-sectional study. Health and demographic data was obtained for all confirmed dengue cases in Makkah, KSA, in the years 2017-2019 from the Vector-Borne and Zoonotic Diseases Administration (VBZDA) in Makkah and the Makkah Regional Laboratory, KSA. In addition, entomological data about Aedes density was obtained from the VBZDA. Descriptive epidemiological methods were used to determine the occurrence and distribution of dengue cases.
    RESULTS: Laboratory-confirmed dengue cases were higher in 2019 as compared to 2017 and 2018, suggesting an outbreak of dengue in Makkah, KSA, in 2019. The incidence of confirmed dengue cases was 204 in 2017, 163 in 2018 and 748 in 2019. Dengue mostly affected people in the 25-44 age group, accounting for approximately half of the annual dengue cases each year. Men were at a higher dengue incidence risk when compared to women, and Saudi women had a higher risk rate for dengue cases when compared to non-Saudi women in all 3 years studied. There was no dengue related death in these 3 years.
    CONCLUSION: The dengue incidence increased in Makkah, KSA, in 2019 as compared to the previous 2 years, owing to heavy rainfall in 2019. Post-rainfall Vector control efforts may help contain the disease in Makkah, KSA.
    Keywords:  Dengue; Saudi Arabia; Vector Borne diseases; incidence
  9. Can J Infect Dis Med Microbiol. 2021 ;2021 6699788
      Dengue fever is a leading cause of illness and death in the tropics and subtropics, and the disease has become a threat to many nonendemic countries where the competent vectors such as Aedes albopictus and Aedes aegypti are abundant. The dengue epidemic in Tokyo, 2014, poses the critical importance to accurately model and predict the outbreak risk of dengue fever in nonendemic regions. Using climatological datasets and traveler volumes in Japan, where dengue was not seen for 70 years by 2014, we investigated the outbreak risk of dengue in 47 prefectures, employing the temperature-dependent basic reproduction number and a branching process model. Our results show that the effective reproduction number varies largely by season and by prefecture, and, moreover, the probability of outbreak if an untraced case is imported varies greatly with the calendar time of importation and location of destination. Combining the seasonally varying outbreak risk with time-dependent traveler volume data, the unconditional outbreak risk was calculated, illustrating different outbreak risks between southern coastal areas and northern tourist cities. As the main finding, the large travel volume with nonnegligible risk of outbreak explains the reason why a summer outbreak in Tokyo, 2014, was observed. Prefectures at high risk of future outbreak would be Tokyo again, Kanagawa or Osaka, and highly populated prefectures with large number of travelers.
  10. J Med Entomol. 2021 Nov 04. pii: tjab076. [Epub ahead of print]
      Eastern equine encephalitis virus (EEEV; family Togaviridae, genus Alphavirus) is a mosquito-borne pathogen found in eastern North America that causes severe disease in humans and horses. The mosquito Culiseta melanura (Coquillett) (Diptera: Culicidae) is the primary enzootic vector of EEEV throughout eastern North America while several mosquito species belonging to diverse genera serve as bridge vectors. The ecology of EEEV differs between northern and southern foci, with respect to phenology of outbreaks, important vertebrate hosts, and bridge vector species. Active transmission is limited to roughly half of the year in northern foci (New York, New Hampshire, Massachusetts, Connecticut), while year-round transmission occurs in the southeastern region (particularly Florida). Multiple phylogenetic analyses indicate that EEEV strains circulating in northern foci are likely transported from southern foci by migrating birds. Bird species that overwinter or migrate through Florida, are bitten by Cs. melanura in late spring, and arrive at northern breeding grounds in May are the most likely candidates to disperse EEEV northward. Available data indicate that common yellowthroat and green heron satisfy these criteria and could serve as virus dispersers. Understanding the factors that drive the phenology of Cs. melanura reproduction in the south and the timing of avian migration from southern foci could provide insight into how confluence of these biological phenomena shapes outbreaks of EEE throughout its range. This information could be used to develop models predicting the likelihood of outbreaks in a given year, allowing vector control districts to more efficiently marshal resources necessary to protect their stakeholders.
    Keywords:   Alphavirus ; Culiseta ; eastern equine encephalitis virus; migratory bird; southeastern United States
  11. Malar J. 2021 Oct 30. 20(1): 431
      BACKGROUND: Although considerable success in reducing the incidence of malaria has been achieved in Brazil in recent years, an increase in the proportion of cases caused by the harder-to-eliminate Plasmodium vivax parasite can be noted. Recurrences in P. vivax malaria cases are due to new mosquito-bite infections, drug resistance or especially from relapses arising from hypnozoites. As such, new innovative surveillance strategies are needed. The aim of this study was to develop an infographic visualization tool to improve individual-level malaria surveillance focused on malaria elimination in the Brazilian Amazon.METHODS: Action Research methodology was employed to deal with the complex malaria surveillance problem in the Amazon region. Iterative cycles were used, totalling four cycles with a formal validation of an operational version of the Malaria Trigram tool at the end of the process. Further probabilistic data linkage was carried out so that information on the same patients could be linked, allowing for follow-up analysis since the official system was not planned in such way that includes this purpose.
    RESULTS: An infographic user interface was developed for the Malaria Trigram that incorporates all the visual and descriptive power of the Trigram concept. It is a multidimensional and interactive historical representation of malaria cases per patient over time and provides visual input to decision-makers on recurrences of malaria.
    CONCLUSIONS: The Malaria Trigram is aimed to help public health professionals and policy makers to recognise and analyse different types of patterns in malaria events, including recurrences and reinfections, based on the current Brazilian health surveillance system, the SIVEP-Malária system, with no additional primary data collection or change in the current process. By using the Malaria Trigram, it is possible to plan and coordinate interventions for malaria elimination that are integrated with other parallel actions in the Brazilian Amazon region, such as vector control management, effective drug and vaccine deployment strategies.
    Keywords:  Elimination; Malaria; Recurrence; Surveillance; Visualization
  12. J Med Entomol. 2021 Nov 04. pii: tjab077. [Epub ahead of print]
      In the current review, we examine the regional history, ecology, and epidemiology of eastern equine encephalitis virus (EEEV) to investigate the major drivers of disease outbreaks in the northeastern United States. EEEV was first recognized as a public health threat during an outbreak in eastern Massachusetts in 1938, but historical evidence for equine epizootics date back to the 1800s. Since then, sporadic disease outbreaks have reoccurred in the Northeast with increasing frequency and northward expansion of human cases during the last 20 yr. Culiseta melanura (Coquillett) (Diptera: Culicidae) serves as the main enzootic vector that drives EEEV transmission among wild birds, but this mosquito species will occasionally feed on mammals. Several species have been implicated as bridge vectors to horses and humans, with Coquilletstidia perturbans (Walker) as a leading suspect based on its opportunistic feeding behavior, vector competence, and high infection rates during recent disease outbreaks. A diversity of bird species are reservoir competent, exposed to EEEV, and serve as hosts for Cs. melanura, with a few species, including the wood thrush (Hlocichia mustelina) and the American robin (Turdus migratorius), contributing disproportionately to virus transmission based on available evidence. The major factors responsible for the sustained resurgence of EEEV are considered and may be linked to regional landscape and climate changes that support higher mosquito densities and more intense virus transmission.
    Keywords:  eastern equine encephalitis virus; mosquitoe; northeastern US; vector
  13. Iran J Public Health. 2021 Sep;50(9): 1816-1824
      Background: Risk factors of Malaria transmission at cross-boundaries area is important to be identified. This study aimed to identify the risk factors of Malaria transmission at cross-boundaries area in Menoreh Hills, Java, Indonesia.Methods: The design of the study was an observational study with a case-control design. Data on malaria cases and controls were obtained from the Primary Health Care in Menoreh. All malaria positive patients with clinical and laboratory examinations recorded in health services during 1 Jan 2015-31 Dec 2015. Overall, 138 cases and 138 controls were included. Several variables were collected such as altitude, night out behavior, the use of mosquito nets, nighttime bed, travel history, mosquito bite prevention activities, cattle ownership, distance to mosquito breeding site, etc. Data were obtained by structured questionnaires and observation. Data were analyzed by univariate, bivariate and multivariate.
    Results: The altitude of house >500 m above sea level proved to be influential as a risk factor for Malaria (OR 3.62, 95% CI 1.61-8.16, P=0.002). Several variables were identified as a risk factor of Malaria such as the wall of the house from bamboo/wood, no insecticide and distance of house <100 m from mosquito breeding site.
    Conclusion: An awareness for the local health sector particularly to provide a recommendation for house construction to protect a community from Malaria transmission.
    Keywords:  Altitude; Indonesia; Malaria; Menoreh; Risk factors
  14. Geospat Health. 2021 Oct 28. 16(2):
      The tropical climate of Thailand encourages very high mosquito densities in certain areas and is ideal for dengue transmission, especially in the southern region where the province Nakhon Si Thammarat is located. It has the longest dengue fever transmission duration that is affected by some important climate predictors, such as rainfall, number of rainy days, temperature and humidity. We aimed to explore the relationship between weather variables and dengue and to analyse transmission hotspots and coldspots at the district-level. Poisson probability distribution of the generalized linear model (GLM) was used to examine the association between the monthly weather variable data and the reported number of dengue cases from January 2002 to December 2018 and geographic information system (GIS) for dengue hotspot analysis. Results showed a significant association between the environmental variables and dengue incidence when comparing the seasons. Temperature, sea-level pressure and wind speed had the highest coefficients, i.e. β=0.17, β= -0.12 and β= -0.11 (P<0.001), respectively. The risk of dengue incidence occurring during the rainy season was almost twice as high as that during monsoon. Statistically significant spatial clusters of dengue cases were observed all through the province in different years. Nabon was identified as a hotspot, while Pak Phanang was a coldspot for dengue fever incidence, explained by the fact that the former is a rubber-plantation hub, while the agricultural plains of the latter lend themselves to the practice of pisciculture combined with rice farming. This information is imminently important for planning apt sustainable control measures for dengue epidemics.
  15. J Trop Med. 2021 ;2021 8483236
      Aedes aegypti is the main vector of the dengue virus in Colombia. Some factors have been associated with its presence; however, in the local context, it has not been sufficiently evaluated. The present study seeks to identify the socioeconomic, environmental, and behavioral factors associated with the presence and abundance of A. aegypti in urban dwellings in the municipality of Castilla la Nueva. A cross-sectional cohort study was conducted in houses in the urban area of the municipality of Castilla la Nueva, where 307 houses were sampled by systematic random sampling during May 2018. A multifactorial survey was used to measure the socioeconomic, environmental, and behavioral factors as explanatory variables. The infestation and relative abundance were established by the presence of larval stages and ovitraps. The associated factors for the presence and abundance of A. aegypti were identified using negative binomial and logistic regression models. A positive housing infestation of 33.2% was identified by direct inspection and 78.5% with ovitraps. The main factors positively associated with the presence and abundance of A. aegypti were one-story homes (PR = 2.26; 95% CI: 1.31-3.87), the storage of water for domestic use (PR = 1.91; 95% CI: 1.18-3.09), and local conditions such as disorganized backyard (PR = 79.95; 95% CI: 10.96-583.24) and the proportion of shade greater than 50% of the backyard (PR = 62.32; 95% CI: 6.47-600.32). And, it is negatively associated with residential gas service (PR = 0.3; 95% CI: 0.16-0.58) and self-administered internal fumigation (PR = 0.37; 95% CI: 0.2-0.69). The presence and abundance of A. aegypti were explained by interrelated socioeconomic, environmental, and behavioral factors where local conditions and habits such as the organization of the patio, knowledge about vector biology, and cleaning containers are identified as main topics for future prevention strategies for the transmission of dengue in the local and national context.
  16. BMC Public Health. 2021 Nov 03. 21(1): 1996
      BACKGROUND: Encouraged by the previous success in malaria control and prevention strategies, the Ethiopian ministry of health launched malaria elimination with a stepwise approach by primarily targeting the low-transmission Districts and their adjacent areas/zones in order to shrink the country's malaria map progressively. Hence, this community survey was conducted to establish baseline malaria information at the preliminary phase of elimination at targeted settings.METHODS: A community-based cross-sectional survey was conducted at 20 malaria-elimination targeted Districts selected from five Regional states and one city administration in Ethiopia. The GPS-enabled smartphones programmed with Open Data Kit were used to enumerate 9326 study households and collect data from 29,993 residents. CareStart™ Malaria PAN (pLDH) Rapid Diagnostic Tests (RDTs) were used for blood testing at the field level. Armpit digital thermometers were used to measure axillary temperature.
    RESULT: Overall malaria prevalence by RDTs was 1.17% (339/28973). The prevalence at District levels ranged from 0.0 to 4.7%. The proportion of symptomatic cases (axillary temperature > 37.5oc) in the survey was 9.2% (2760/29993). Among the 2510 symptomatic individuals tested with RDTs, only 3.35% (84/2510) were malaria positive. The 75.2% (255/339) of all malaria positives were asymptomatic. Of the total asymptomatic malaria cases, 10.2% (26/255) were under-five children and 89.8% (229/255) were above 5 years of age.
    CONCLUSION: The study shows a decrease in malaria prevalence compared to the reports of previous malaria indicator surveys in the country. The finding can be used as a baseline for measuring the achievement of ongoing malaria elimination efforts. Particularly, the high prevalence of asymptomatic individuals (0.88%) in these transmission settings indicates there may be sustaining hidden transmission. Therefore, active case detection with more sensitive diagnostic techniques is suggested to know more real magnitude of residual malaria in the elimination-targeted areas.
    Keywords:  Baseline survey; Ethiopia; Malaria elimination; Malaria epidemiology
  17. J Med Entomol. 2021 Nov 04. pii: tjab135. [Epub ahead of print]
      Eastern equine encephalitis virus (EEEV; Family Togaviridae), is an endemic pathogen first isolated in 1933 with distribution primarily in the eastern US and Canada. The virus has caused periodic outbreaks in both humans and equines along the eastern seaboard and through the southern coastal states. While the outbreaks caused by EEEV have been sporadic and varied geographically since the discovery of the virus, it has continued to expand its range moving into the Midwest states as well. Additionally, one of the largest outbreaks was recorded in 2019 prompting concerns that outbreaks were becoming larger and more frequent. Because the virus can cause serious disease and because it is transmissible by both mosquitoes and aerosol, there has been renewed interest in identifying potential options for vaccines. Currently, there are no licensed vaccines and control relies completely on the use of personal protective measures and integrated vector control which have limited effectiveness for the EEEV vectors. Several vaccine candidates are currently being developed; this review will describe the multiple options under consideration for future development and assess their relative advantages and disadvantages.
    Keywords:  Eastern equine encephalitis; alphavirus; vaccine
  18. Geospat Health. 2021 Nov 03. 16(2):
      Dengue is a complex disease with an increasing number of infections worldwide. This study aimed to analyse spatiotemporal dengue outbreaks using geospatial techniques and examine the effects of the weather on dengue outbreaks in the Klang Valley area, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. Daily weather variables including rainfall, temperature (maximum and minimum) and wind speed were acquired together with the daily reported dengue cases data from 2001 to 2011 and converted into geospatial format to identify whether there was a specific pattern of the dengue outbreaks. The association between these variables and dengue outbreaks was assessed using Spearman's correlation. The result showed that dengue outbreaks consistently occurred in the study area during a 11-year study period. And that the strongest outbreaks frequently occurred in two high-rise apartment buildings located in Kuala Lumpur City centre. The results also show significant negative correlations between maximum temperature and minimum temperature on dengue outbreaks around the study area as well as in the area of the high-rise apartment buildings in Kuala Lumpur City centre.
  19. Korean J Parasitol. 2021 Oct;59(5): 507-512
      Since 1993, vivax malaria has been recognized as a public health burden in Korea. Despite of pan-governmental malaria-control efforts and the dramatic reduction in the burden of this disease over the last 10 years, vivax malaria has not been well controlled and has remained continuously endemic. We focused interviewed and examined the charts of 28 confirmed vivax malaria patients given malarial therapy for whom daily records were kept from Gimpo-si, Gyeonggido of Korea. Various epidemiological characteristics of vivax malaria, including the incubation period, medication used, and recurrence, and an evaluation of the parasitic characteristics from the focused interviews of patients from this region are described here. Most of the participants indicated the 3 most common symptoms of malaria (headache, chills and fever). Of the 28 cases, 2 experienced a second attack and there were 17 and 11 cases with short- and long-term incubation periods, respectively, yielding a short-term to long-term ratio of 1.5. Based on the parasitemia stages, most of the participants were tested at 5 to 7 days (11 cases) and 7 to 15 days (11 cases) after initial wave of asexual parasites. In conclusion, public health authorities should consider developing management measures to decrease the time lag for diagnosis and drafting unified and robust guidelines for drug use for malaria and drawing up unified and robust guidelines on the use of medication for malaria. It also suggests that routine monitoring, surveillance, and precise medical surveys in high-risk vivax malaria endemic areas are pivotal to controlling this persistent public disease and finally eliminating it from Korea.
    Keywords:  Epidemiologic analysis; Gimpo-si; focused interview; vivax malaria