bims-mosdis Biomed News
on Mosquito distribution and disease
Issue of 2021‒09‒26
seven papers selected by
Richard Halfpenny
Staffordshire University

  1. Parasit Vectors. 2021 Sep 19. 14(1): 482
      BACKGROUND: The global impact of Zika virus in Latin America has drawn renewed attention to circulating mosquito-borne viruses in this region, such as dengue and chikungunya. Our objective was to assess socio-ecological factors associated with Aedes mosquito vector density as a measure of arbovirus transmission risk in three cities of potentially recent Zika virus introduction: Ibagué, Colombia; Manta, Ecuador; and Posadas, Argentina, in order to inform disease mitigation strategies.METHODS: We sampled Aedes mosquito populations in a total of 1086 households, using indoor and peridomestic mosquito collection methods, including light traps, resting traps, traps equipped with chemical attractant and aspirators. For each sampled household, we collected socio-economic data using structured questionnaires and data on microenvironmental conditions using iButton data loggers.
    RESULTS: A total of 3230 female Aedes mosquitoes were collected, of which 99.8% were Aedes aegypti and 0.2% were Aedes albopictus. Mean female Aedes mosquito density per household was 1.71 (standard deviation: 2.84). We used mixed-effects generalized linear Poisson regression analyses to identify predictors of Aedes density, using month, neighborhood and country as random-effects variables. Across study sites, the number of household occupants [incidence rate ratio (IRR): 1.08, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.01-1.14], presence of entry points for mosquitoes into the household (IRR: 1.51, 95% CI: 1.30-1.76) and presence of decorative vegetation (IRR: 1.52, 95% CI: 1.22-1.88) were associated with higher Aedes density; while being in the highest wealth tertile of household wealth (IRR: 0.78, 95% CI: 0.66-0.92), knowledge of how arboviruses are transmitted (IRR: 0.94, 95% CI: 0.89-1.00) and regular emptying of water containers by occupants (IRR: 0.79, 95% CI: 0.67-0.92) were associated with lower Aedes density.
    CONCLUSIONS: Our study addresses the complexities of arbovirus vectors of global significance at the interface between human and mosquito populations. Our results point to several predictors of Aedes mosquito vector density in countries with co-circulation of multiple Aedes-borne viruses, and point to modifiable risk factors that may be useful for disease prevention and control.
    Keywords:  Disease risk; Global health; Mosquito vector; Socio-economic status; Wealth Index
  2. Sci Rep. 2021 Sep 23. 11(1): 18909
      Mosquitoes transmit several infectious diseases that pose significant threat to human health. Temperature along with other environmental factors at breeding and resting locations play a role in the organismal development and abundance of mosquitoes. Accurate analysis of mosquito population dynamics requires information on microclimatic conditions at breeding and resting locations. In this study, we develop a regression model to characterize microclimatic temperature based on ambient environmental conditions. Data were collected by placing sensor loggers at resting and breeding locations such as storm drains across Houston, TX. Corresponding weather data was obtained from National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration website. Features extracted from these data sources along with contextual information on location were used to develop a Generalized Linear Model for predicting microclimate temperatures. We also analyzed mosquito population dynamics for Aedes albopictus under ambient and microclimatic conditions using system dynamic (SD) modelling to demonstrate the need for accurate microclimatic temperatures in population models. The microclimate prediction model had an R2 value of ~ 95% and average prediction error of ~ 1.5 °C indicating that microclimate temperatures can be reliably estimated from the ambient environmental conditions. SD model analysis indicates that some microclimates in Texas could result in larger populations of juvenile and adult Aedes albopictus mosquitoes surviving the winter without requiring dormancy.
  3. Emerg Infect Dis. 2021 Oct;27(10): 2700-2703
      We detected 2 natural, asymptomatic Plasmodium inui monoinfections in humans in Malaysia by using nested PCR on concentrated high-volume blood samples. We found a P. inui-positive Anopheles cracens mosquito in the same site as the human infections. Investigators should use ultrasensitive detection methods to identify simian malaria parasite transmission in humans.
    Keywords:  Anopheles; Malaysia; Plasmodium inui; humans; malaria; monkey; parasites; vector; vector-borne infections; zoonoses
  4. Trends Parasitol. 2021 Sep 18. pii: S1471-4922(21)00208-7. [Epub ahead of print]
      The skin microbiota plays an essential role in the protection against pathogens. It is our skin microbiota that makes us smell different from each other, rendering us more or less attractive to mosquitoes. Mosquitoes exploit skin bacterial odours to locate their hosts and are vectors of pathogens that can cause severe diseases such as malaria and dengue fever. A novel solution for long-lasting protection against insect vectors of disease could be attained by manipulating the bacterial commensals on human skin. The current options for protection against biting insects usually require topical application of repellents that evaporate within hours. We discuss possible routes for the use of commensal bacteria to create a microbial-based repellent.
    Keywords:  disease; mosquitoes; odours; probiotic; repellent; skin microbiome
  5. J Parasitol Res. 2021 ;2021 6727843
      Background: Malaria is a serious public health problem of most developing countries, including Ethiopia. The burden of malaria is severely affecting the economy and lives of people, particularly among the productive ages of rural society. Thus, this study was targeted to analyze the past five-year retrospective malaria data among the rural setting of Maygaba town, Welkait district, northwest Ethiopia.Methods: The study was done on 36,219 outpatients attending for malaria diagnosis during January 2015 to 2019. Data was extracted from the outpatient medical database. Chi-square (χ 2) test and binary logistic regression model were used to analyze the retrospective data. Statistical significance was defined at p < 0.05.
    Results: Of 36,219 outpatients examined, 7,309 (20.2%) malaria-positive cases were reported during 2015-2019. There was a fluctuating trend in the number of malaria-suspected and -confirmed cases in each year. Male slide-confirmed (61.4%, N = 4,485) were significantly higher than females (38.6%, N = 2,824) (p < 005). Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax were the dominant parasites detected, which accounted for 66.1%; N = 4832, 33.9%; N = 2477, respectively. Despite the seasonal abundance of malaria cases, the highest prevalence was recorded in autumn (September to November) in the study area. Binary logistic regression analysis revealed that statistically significant associations were observed between sexes, interseasons, mean seasonal rainfall, and mean seasonal temperature with the prevalence of P. vivax. However, P. falciparum has shown a significant association with interseasons and mean seasonal temperature.
    Conclusions: Although the overall prevalence of malaria was continually declined from 2015-2019, malaria remains the major public health problem in the study area. The severe species of P. falciparum was found to be the dominant parasite reported in the study area. A collaborative action between the national malaria control program and its partners towards the transmission, prevention, and control of the two deadly species is highly recommended.
  6. Acta Trop. 2021 Sep 20. pii: S0001-706X(21)00315-6. [Epub ahead of print] 106136
      Dengue virus (DENV) is an endemic disease in the hot and humid low-lands of Colombia. We characterize the association of monthly series of dengue cases with indices of El Niño/Southern Oscillation (ENSO) at the tropical Pacific and local climatic variables in Colombia during the period 2007-2017 at different temporal and spatial scales. For estimation purposes, we use lagged cross-correlations (Pearson test), cross-wavelet analysis (wavelet cross spectrum, and wavelet coherence), as well as a novel nonlinear causality method, PCMCI, that allows identifying common causal drivers and links among high dimensional simultaneous and time-lagged variables. Our results evidence the strong association of DENV cases in Colombia with ENSO indices and with local temperature and rainfall. El Niño (La Niña) phenomenon is related to an increase (decrease) of dengue cases nationally and in most regions and departments, with maximum correlations occurring at shorter time lags in the Pacific and Andes regions, closer to the Pacific Ocean. This association is mainly explained by the ENSO-driven increase in temperature and decrease in rainfall, especially in the Andes and Pacific regions. The influence of ENSO is not stationary, given the reduction of DENV cases since 2005, and that local climate variables vary in space and time, which prevents to extrapolate results from one region to another. The association between DENV and ENSO varies at national and regional scales when data are disaggregated by seasons, being stronger in DJF and weaker in SON. Overall, the Pacific and Andes regions control the relationship between dengue dynamics and ENSO at national scale. Cross-wavelet analysis indicates that the ENSO-DENV relation in Colombia exhibits a strong coherence in the 12 to 16-months frequency band, which implies the frequency locking between the annual cycle and the interannual (ENSO) timescales. Results of nonlinear causality metrics reveal the complex concomitant effects of ENSO and local climate variables, while offering new insights to develop early warning systems for DENV in Colombia.
    Keywords:  DENV; climate variability; dengue seasonality; nonlinear causality; tropical diseases
  7. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2021 Sep 23. 15(9): e0009802
      Dengue has become endemic in Pakistan with annual recurrence. A sudden increase in the dengue cases was reported from Rawalpindi in 2016, while an outbreak occurred for the first time in Peshawar in 2017. Therefore, a multi-center study was carried out to determine the circulating dengue virus (DENV) serotypes and Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) co-infection in Lahore, Rawalpindi, and Peshawar cities in 2016-18. A hospital-based cross-sectional study was carried out in Lahore and Rawalpindi in 2016-18, while a community-based study was carried out in Peshawar in 2017. The study participants were tested for dengue NS1 antigen using an immunochromatographic device while anti-dengue IgM/IgG antibodies were detected by indirect ELISA. All NS1 positive samples were used for DENV serotyping using multiplex real-time PCR assay. Additionally, dengue samples were tested for CHIKV co-infection using IgM/IgG ELISA. A total of 6291 samples were collected among which 8.11% were NS1 positive while 2.5% were PCR positive. DENV-2 was the most common serotype (75.5%) detected, followed by DENV-1 in 16.1%, DENV-3 in 3.9% and DENV-4 in 0.7% while DENV-1 and DENV-4 concurrent infections were detected in 3.9% samples. DENV-1 was the predominant serotype (62.5%) detected from Lahore and Rawalpindi, while DENV-2 was the only serotype detected from Peshawar. Comorbidities resulted in a significant increase (p-value<0.001) in the duration of hospital stay of the patients. Type 2 diabetes mellitus substantially (p-value = 0.004) contributed to the severity of the disease. Among a total of 590 dengue positive samples, 11.8% were also positive for CHIKV co-infection. Co-circulation of multiple DENV serotypes and CHIKV infection in Pakistan is a worrisome situation demanding the urgent attention of the public health experts to strengthen vector surveillance.