bims-mitpro Biomed News
on Mitochondrial Proteostasis
Issue of 2023‒09‒17
twelve papers selected by
Andreas Kohler, University of Graz

  1. Nat Struct Mol Biol. 2023 Sep 11.
      Over half of mitochondrial proteins are imported from the cytosol via the pre-sequence pathway, controlled by the TOM complex in the outer membrane and the TIM23 complex in the inner membrane. The mechanisms through which proteins are translocated via the TOM and TIM23 complexes remain unclear. Here we report the assembly of the active TOM-TIM23 supercomplex of Saccharomyces cerevisiae with translocating polypeptide substrates. Electron cryo-microscopy analyses reveal that the polypeptide substrates pass the TOM complex through the center of a Tom40 subunit, interacting with a glutamine-rich region. Structural and biochemical analyses show that the TIM23 complex contains a heterotrimer of the subunits Tim23, Tim17 and Mgr2. The polypeptide substrates are shielded from lipids by Mgr2 and Tim17, which creates a translocation pathway characterized by a negatively charged entrance and a central hydrophobic region. These findings reveal an unexpected pre-sequence pathway through the TOM-TIM23 supercomplex spanning the double membranes of mitochondria.
  2. Mol Cell. 2023 Sep 07. pii: S1097-2765(23)00656-1. [Epub ahead of print]
      Mitochondria are central hubs of cellular metabolism that also play key roles in signaling and disease. It is therefore fundamentally important that mitochondrial quality and activity are tightly regulated. Mitochondrial degradation pathways contribute to quality control of mitochondrial networks and can also regulate the metabolic profile of mitochondria to ensure cellular homeostasis. Here, we cover the many and varied ways in which cells degrade or remove their unwanted mitochondria, ranging from mitophagy to mitochondrial extrusion. The molecular signals driving these varied pathways are discussed, including the cellular and physiological contexts under which the different degradation pathways are engaged.
    Keywords:  MDV; PINK1; Parkin; degradation; mitochondria; mitochondrial quality control; mitophagy; proteasome; selective autophagy; ubiquitin
  3. IUBMB Life. 2023 Sep 15.
      The complexes mediating oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) in the inner mitochondrial membrane consist of proteins encoded in the nuclear or the mitochondrial DNA. The mitochondrially encoded membrane proteins (mito-MPs) represent the catalytic core of these complexes and follow complicated pathways for biogenesis. Owing to their overall hydrophobicity, mito-MPs are co-translationally inserted into the inner membrane by the Oxa1 insertase. After insertion, OXPHOS biogenesis factors mediate the assembly of mito-MPs into complexes and participate in the regulation of mitochondrial translation, while protein quality control factors recognize and degrade faulty or excess proteins. This review summarizes the current understanding of these early steps occurring during the assembly of mito-MPs by concentrating on results obtained in the model organism baker's yeast.
    Keywords:  eukaryotic gene expression; mitochondria; protein folding; protein synthesis
  4. BMC Biol. 2023 09 12. 21(1): 193
      BACKGROUND: Prefoldin is an evolutionarily conserved co-chaperone of the tailless complex polypeptide 1 ring complex (TRiC)/chaperonin containing tailless complex 1 (CCT). The prefoldin complex consists of six subunits that are known to transfer newly produced cytoskeletal proteins to TRiC/CCT for folding polypeptides. Prefoldin function was recently linked to the maintenance of protein homeostasis, suggesting a more general function of the co-chaperone during cellular stress conditions. Prefoldin acts in an adenosine triphosphate (ATP)-independent manner, making it a suitable candidate to operate during stress conditions, such as mitochondrial dysfunction. Mitochondrial function depends on the production of mitochondrial proteins in the cytosol. Mechanisms that sustain cytosolic protein homeostasis are vital for the quality control of proteins destined for the organelle and such mechanisms among others include chaperones.RESULTS: We analyzed consequences of the loss of prefoldin subunits on the cell proliferation and survival of Saccharomyces cerevisiae upon exposure to various cellular stress conditions. We found that prefoldin subunits support cell growth under heat stress. Moreover, prefoldin facilitates the growth of cells under respiratory growth conditions. We showed that mitochondrial morphology and abundance of some respiratory chain complexes was supported by the prefoldin 2 (Pfd2/Gim4) subunit. We also found that Pfd2 interacts with Tom70, a receptor of mitochondrial precursor proteins that are targeted into mitochondria.
    CONCLUSIONS: Our findings link the cytosolic prefoldin complex to mitochondrial function. Loss of the prefoldin complex subunit Pfd2 results in adaptive cellular responses on the proteome level under physiological conditions suggesting a continuous need of Pfd2 for maintenance of cellular homeostasis. Within this framework, Pfd2 might support mitochondrial function directly as part of the cytosolic quality control system of mitochondrial proteins or indirectly as a component of the protein homeostasis network.
    Keywords:  Chaperone; Mitochondria; Pfd2/Gim4; Prefoldin; Proteostasis; Tom70
  5. Int J Biol Sci. 2023 ;19(13): 4327-4339
      Sirtuin-3 (Sirt3) deacetylates several mitochondrial proteins implicated into cerebral ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury. The mitochondrial unfolded protein response (UPRmt) favors mitochondrial proteostasis during various stressors. Here, we used Sirt3 transgenic mice and a transient middle cerebral artery occlusion model to evaluate the molecular basis of Sirt3 on the UPRmt during brain post-ischemic dysfunction. The present study illustrated that Sirt3 abundance was suppressed in the brain after brain ischemic abnormalities. Overexpression of Sirt3 in vivo suppressed the infarction size and attenuated neuroinflammation after brain I/R injury. Sirt3 overexpression restored neural viability by reducing mitochondrial ROS synthesis, maintaining the mitochondrial potential and improving mitochondrial adenosine triphosphate synthesis. Sirt3 overexpression protected neuronal mitochondria against brain post-ischemic malfunction via eliciting the UPRmt by the forkhead box O3 (Foxo3)/sphingosine kinase 1 (Sphk1) pathway. Inhibiting either the UPRmt or the Foxo3/Sphk1 pathway relieved the favorable influence of Sirt3 on neural function and mitochondrial behavior. In contrast, Sphk1 overexpression was sufficient to reduce the infarction size, attenuate neuroinflammation, sustain neuronal viability and prevent mitochondrial abnormalities during brain post-ischemia dysfunction. Thus, the UPRmt protects neural viability and mitochondrial homeostasis, and the Sirt3/Foxo3/Sphk1 pathway is a promosing therapeutic candidate for ischemic stroke.
    Keywords:  Foxo3; Sirt3; Sphk1; UPRmt; cerebral I/R injury; mitochondria
  6. Front Cell Dev Biol. 2023 ;11 1270341
    Keywords:  double-stranded RNA-activated protein kinase; doublestranded RNA; inflammatory bowel diseases; integrated stress response; mitochondria; mitochondrial unfolded protein response; proteostasis; stress signaling
  7. Ecotoxicol Environ Saf. 2023 Sep 11. pii: S0147-6513(23)00963-6. [Epub ahead of print]264 115459
      Aluminum is a neurotoxic food contaminant. Aluminum trichloride (AlCl3) causes hippocampal mitochondrial damage, leading to hippocampal injury. Damaged mitochondria can release mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (mtROS) and activate nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain-like receptor-containing 3 (NLRP3) inflammasomes and apoptosis. E3 ubiquitin ligase PARK2 (Parkin)-mediated mitophagy can attenuate mitochondrial damage. However, the role of mitophagy in AlCl3-induced mice hippocampal damage and its regulatory mechanism remain elusive. First, C57BL/6 N mice were treated with 0, 44.825, 89.65, and 179.3 mg/kg body weight AlCl3 drinking water for 90 d. Apoptosis, NLRP3-inflammasome activation and mitochondrial damage were increased in AlCl3-induced hippocampal damage. In addition, Parkin-mediated mitophagy peaked in the middle-dose group and was slightly attenuated in the high-dose group. Subsequently, we used wild-type and Parkin knockout (Parkin-/-) mice to investigate the AlCl3-induced hippocampal damage. The results showed that Parkin-/- inhibited mitophagy, and aggravated AlCl3-induced mitochondrial damage, NLRP3-inflammasome activation, apoptosis and hippocampal damage. Finally, we administered MitoQ (mtROS inhibitor) and MCC950 (NLRP3 inhibitor) to AlCl3-treated Parkin-/- mice to investigate the mechanism of Parkin-mediated mitophagy. The results showed that inhibition of mtROS and NLRP3 attenuated hippocampal NLRP3-inflammasome activation, apoptosis, and damage in AlCl3-treated Parkin-/- mice. These findings indicate that Parkin-mediated mitophagy protects against AlCl3-induced hippocampal apoptosis in mice via the mtROS-NLRP3 pathway.
    Keywords:  Aluminum; Mitochondrial reactive oxygen species; Mitophagy; NLRP3-inflammasome; Neurodegenerative diseases; Parkin
  8. Cell Rep. 2023 Sep 12. pii: S2211-1247(23)01123-3. [Epub ahead of print]42(9): 113112
      The protozoan parasite Trypanosoma brucei and its disease-causing relatives are among the few organisms that barely regulate the transcription of protein-coding genes. Yet, alterations in its gene expression are essential to survive in different host environments. Recently, tRNA-derived RNAs have been implicated as regulators of many cellular processes within and beyond translation. Previously, we identified the tRNAThr-3'-half (AGU) as a ribosome-associated non-coding RNA able to enhance global translation. Here we report that the tRNAThr-3'-half is generated upon starvation inside the mitochondria. The tRNAThr-3'-half associates with mitochondrial ribosomes and stimulates translation during stress recovery, positively affecting mitochondrial activity and, consequently, cellular energy production capacity. Our results describe an organelle ribosome-associated ncRNA involved in translation regulation to boost the central hub of energy metabolism as an immediate stress recovery response.
    Keywords:  CP: Microbiology; CP: Molecular biology; mitochondria; mitoribosome; protein synthesis; stress response; tRNA fragment; tRNA half; translation regulation
  9. Autophagy. 2023 Sep 15.
      Cerebral ischemia induces massive mitochondrial damage, leading to neuronal death. The elimination of damaged mitochondria via mitophagy is critical for neuroprotection. Here we show that the level of PA2G4/EBP1 (proliferation-associated 2G4) was notably increased early during transient middle cerebral artery occlusion and prevented neuronal death by eliciting cerebral ischemia-reperfusion (IR)-induced mitophagy. Neuron-specific knockout of Pa2g4 increased infarct volume and aggravated neuron loss with impaired mitophagy and was rescued by introduction of adeno-associated virus serotype 2 expressing PA2G4/EBP1. We determined that PA2G4/EBP1 is ubiquitinated on lysine 376 by PRKN/PARKIN on the damaged mitochondria and interacts with receptor protein SQSTM1/p62 for mitophagy induction. Thus, our study suggests that PA2G4/EBP1 ubiquitination following cerebral IR-injury promotes mitophagy induction, which may be implicated in neuroprotection.
    Keywords:  Ischemia; PA2G4/EBP1; PRKN/PARKIN; SQSTM1/p62; mitophagy
  10. ACS Nano. 2023 Sep 15.
      The pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease is closely linked to impaired mitochondrial function and abnormal mitophagy. Biocompatible natural antioxidants effectively protect dopaminergic neurons. However, the main challenge in using natural antioxidants for Parkinson's disease therapy is creating a delivery platform to achieve neuron-targeted enrichment. Herein, we synthesized rationally sequence-targeted lycopene nanodots using recombinant human H-ferritin nanocages with lycopene loading into the cavity and lipophilic triphenylphosphonium (TPP) coupling on the outer surface. The nanodots allow for the neural enrichment and mitochondrial regulation of lycopene through blood-brain barrier transcytosis and neuronal mitochondria-targeting capability. These anti-ROS nanodots protect neuronal mitochondrial function and promote PINK1/Parkin-mediated mitophagy in MPTP toxicity-induced neurons in vivo and in vitro, which favors the secretory efflux of pathogenic α-synuclein and the survival of dopaminergic neurons. Moreover, these nanodots restore the Parkinson-like motor symptoms in Parkinson's model mice. This noninvasive sequence-targeted delivery strategy with excellent biocompatibility for pro-survival mitophagy-mediated pathology alleviation makes it a promising approach for treating and preventing Parkinson's disease.
    Keywords:  Parkinson’s disease; ferritin; lycopene; mitochondria-targeting; mitophagy
  11. Neuromolecular Med. 2023 Sep 12.
      Parkinson's disease (PD) is a common neurodegenerative disease that is mainly in middle-aged people and elderly people, and the pathogenesis of PD is complex and diverse. The ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS) is a master regulator of neural development and the maintenance of brain structure and function. Dysfunction of components and substrates of this UPS has been linked to neurodegenerative diseases such as Parkinson's disease and Alzheimer's disease. Moreover, UPS can regulate α-synuclein misfolding and aggregation, mitophagy, neuroinflammation and oxidative stress to affect the development of PD. In the present study, we review the role of several related E3 ubiquitin ligases and deubiquitinating enzymes (DUBs) on the pathogenesis of PD such as Parkin, CHIP, USP8, etc. On this basis, we summarize the connections and differences of different E3 ubiquitin ligases in the pathogenesis, and elaborate on the regulatory progress of different DUBs on the pathogenesis of PD. Therefore, we can better understand their relationships and provide feasible and valuable therapeutic clues for UPS-related PD treatment research.
    Keywords:  Mitophagy; Parkinson's disease; Ubiquitin proteasome system
  12. Cell Rep. 2023 Sep 06. pii: S2211-1247(23)01092-6. [Epub ahead of print] 113081
      Sphingolipids have key functions in membrane structure and cellular signaling. Ceramide is the central molecule of the sphingolipid metabolism and is generated by ceramide synthases (CerS) in the de novo pathway. Despite their critical function, mechanisms regulating CerS remain largely unknown. Using an unbiased proteomics approach, we find that the small heat shock protein 27 (Hsp27) interacts specifically with CerS1 but not other CerS. Functionally, our data show that Hsp27 acts as an endogenous inhibitor of CerS1. Wild-type Hsp27, but not a mutant deficient in CerS1 binding, inhibits CerS1 activity. Additionally, silencing of Hsp27 enhances CerS1-generated ceramide accumulation in cells. Moreover, phosphorylation of Hsp27 modulates Hsp27-CerS1 interaction and CerS1 activity in acute stress-response conditions. Biologically, we show that Hsp27 knockdown impedes mitochondrial function and induces lethal mitophagy in a CerS1-dependent manner. Overall, we identify an important mode of CerS1 regulation and CerS1-mediated mitophagy through protein-protein interaction with Hsp27.
    Keywords:  C18-ceramide; CP: Molecular biology; CerS1; Hsp27; ceramide; ceramide synthase; mitophagy; sphingolipids