bims-mitper Biomed News
on Mitochondrial Permeabilization
Issue of 2023‒05‒07
eight papers selected by
Bradley Irizarry
Thomas Jefferson University

  1. Exp Mol Med. 2023 May 01.
      Mitochondria are of fundamental importance in programmed cell death, cellular metabolism, and intracellular calcium concentration modulation, and inheritable mitochondrial disorders via mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) mutation cause several diseases in various organs and systems. Nevertheless, mtDNA editing, which plays an essential role in the treatment of mitochondrial disorders, still faces several challenges. Recently, programmable editing tools for mtDNA base editing, such as cytosine base editors derived from DddA (DdCBEs), transcription activator-like effector (TALE)-linked deaminase (TALED), and zinc finger deaminase (ZFD), have emerged with considerable potential for correcting pathogenic mtDNA variants. In this review, we depict recent advances in the field, including structural biology and repair mechanisms, and discuss the prospects of using base editing tools on mtDNA to broaden insight into their medical applicability for treating mitochondrial diseases.
  2. Cell Calcium. 2023 Apr 25. pii: S0143-4160(23)00055-6. [Epub ahead of print]112 102743
      Endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-mitochondria contact sites are crucial to allow Ca2+ flux between them and a plethora of proteins participate in tethering both organelles together. Inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptors (IP3Rs) play a pivotal role at such contact sites, participating in both ER-mitochondria tethering and as Ca2+-transport system that delivers Ca2+ from the ER towards mitochondria. At the ER-mitochondria contact sites, the IP3Rs function as a multi-protein complex linked to the voltage-dependent anion channel 1 (VDAC1) in the outer mitochondrial membrane, via the chaperone glucose-regulated protein 75 (GRP75). This IP3R-GRP75-VDAC1 complex supports the efficient transfer of Ca2+ from the ER into the mitochondrial intermembrane space, from which the Ca2+ ions can reach the mitochondrial matrix through the mitochondrial calcium uniporter. Under physiological conditions, basal Ca2+ oscillations deliver Ca2+ to the mitochondrial matrix, thereby stimulating mitochondrial oxidative metabolism. However, when mitochondrial Ca2+ overload occurs, the increase in [Ca2+] will induce the opening of the mitochondrial permeability transition pore, thereby provoking cell death. The IP3R-GRP75-VDAC1 complex forms a hub for several other proteins that stabilize the complex and/or regulate the complex's ability to channel Ca2+ into the mitochondria. These proteins and their mechanisms of action are discussed in the present review with special attention for their role in pathological conditions and potential implication for therapeutic strategies.
    Keywords:  Apoptosis; ER-mitochondria tether; IP(3) receptor; Metabolism; Mitochondria-associated membranes
  3. Redox Biol. 2023 Apr 25. pii: S2213-2317(23)00115-5. [Epub ahead of print]63 102714
      Sporadic Parkinson's disease (sPD) is a complex multifactorial disorder which etiology remains elusive. Several mechanisms have been described to contribute to PD development namely mitochondrial dysfunction, activation of inflammatory pathways and the deposition of unfolded proteins such as α-synuclein. Our work shows for the first time that lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced activation of innate immunity requires a functional mitochondria and mimics PD pathology in cells. We found in primary mesencephalic neurons that LPS targeted the mitochondria and activated neuronal innate immune responses, which culminated with α-synuclein oligomerization. Moreover, in cybrid cell lines repopulated with mtDNA from sPD subjects with inherent mitochondrial dysfunction and NT2-Rho0 obtained by long-term ethidium bromide exposure, and so without a functional mitochondrial, LPS was not able to further activate innate immunity or increase α-synuclein aggregation. Herein, we showed that mesencephalic neurons are able to activate innate immunity after LPS exposure and this pathway is dependent on mitochondria. Moreover, we disclose that α-synuclein over production is an innate immune response. Our data indicate that mitochondria provide the base for innate immunity activation in idiopathic PD.
    Keywords:  Innate immunity activation; Lipopolysaccharides; Mitochondrial dysfunction; Parkinson's disease; α-synuclein oligomerization
  4. Front Immunol. 2023 ;14 1160035
      Autoimmune diseases are characterized by vast alterations in immune responses, but the pathogenesis remains sophisticated and yet to be fully elucidated. Multiple mechanisms regulating cell differentiation, maturation, and death are critical, among which mitochondria-related cellular organelle functions have recently gained accumulating attention. Mitochondria, as a highly preserved organelle in eukaryotes, have crucial roles in the cellular response to both exogenous and endogenous stress beyond their fundamental functions in chemical energy conversion. In this review, we aim to summarize recent findings on the function of mitochondria in the innate immune response and its aberrancy in autoimmune diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis, systemic lupus erythematosus, etc., mainly focusing on its direct impact on cellular metabolism and its machinery on regulating immune response signaling pathways. More importantly, we summarize the status quo of potential therapeutic targets found in the mitochondrial regulation in the setting of autoimmune diseases and wish to shed light on future studies.
    Keywords:  autoimmune disease; immune metabolism; innate immunity; mitochondria; therapeutic targets
  5. Hum Mol Genet. 2023 May 02. pii: ddad062. [Epub ahead of print]
      The recognition that cytosolic mtDNA activates cGAS-STING innate immune signaling has unlocked novel disease mechanisms. Here, an uncharacterized variant predicted to affect TOP1MT function, P193L, was discovered in a family with multiple early-onset autoimmune diseases, including Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE). Although there was no previous genetic association between TOP1MT and autoimmune disease, the role of TOP1MT as a regulator of mtDNA led us to investigate whether TOP1MT could mediate the release of mtDNA to the cytosol, where it could then activate the cGAS-STING innate immune pathway known to be activated in SLE and other autoimmune diseases. Through analysis of cells with reduced TOP1MT expression, we show that loss of TOP1MT results in release of mtDNA to the cytosol, which activates the cGAS-STING pathway. We also characterized the P193L variant for its ability to rescue several TOP1MT functions when expressed in TOP1MT knockout cells. We show that the P193L variant is not fully functional, as its re-expression at high levels was unable to rescue mitochondrial respiration deficits, and only showed partial rescue for other functions, including repletion of mtDNA replication following depletion, nucleoid size, steady state mtDNA transcripts levels, and mitochondrial morphology. Additionally, expression of P193L at endogenous levels was unable to rescue mtDNA release-mediated cGAS-STING signaling. Overall, we report a link between TOP1MT and mtDNA release leading to cGAS-STING activation. Moreover, we show that the P193L variant has partial loss of function that may contribute to autoimmune disease susceptibility via cGAS-STING mediated activation of the innate immune system.
  6. Biophys Rev. 2023 Apr;15(2): 239-255
      Mitochondria are the primary cellular energy generators, supplying the majority of adenosine triphosphate through oxidative phosphorylation, which is necessary for neuron function and survival. Mitophagy is the metabolic process of eliminating dysfunctional or redundant mitochondria. It is a type of autophagy and it is crucial for maintaining mitochondrial and neuronal health. Impaired mitophagy leads to an accumulation of damaged mitochondria and proteins leading to the dysregulation of mitochondrial quality control processes. Recent research shows the vital role of mitophagy in neurons and the pathogenesis of major neurodegenerative diseases. Mitophagy also plays a major role in the process of aging. This review describes the alterations that are being caused in the mitophagy process at the molecular level in aging and in neurodegenerative diseases, particularly Alzheimer's, Parkinson's, and Huntington's diseases and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, also looks at how mitophagy can be exploited as a therapeutic target for these diseases.
    Keywords:  Aging; Alzheimer’s disease; Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis; Mitochondria; Mitophagy; Neurodegenerative diseases; Parkinson’s disease
  7. Bioessays. 2023 May 05. e2300042
      Interferon stimulated gene 15 (ISG15) encodes a ubiquitin-like protein that is highly induced upon activation of interferon signaling and cytoplasmic DNA sensing pathways. As part of the innate immune system ISG15 acts to inhibit viral replication and particle release via the covalent conjugation to both viral and host proteins. Unlike ubiquitin, unconjugated ISG15 also functions as an intracellular and extra-cellular signaling molecule to modulate the immune response. Several recent studies have shown ISG15 to also function in a diverse array of cellular processes and pathways outside of the innate immune response. This review explores the role of ISG15 in maintaining genome stability, particularly during DNA replication, and how this relates to cancer biology. It puts forth the hypothesis that ISG15, along with DNA sensors, function within a DNA replication fork surveillance pathway to help maintain genome stability.
    Keywords:  DNA damage; DNA replication; DNA replication stress; ISG15; ISGylation; cancer; genome stability; innate immune
  8. Front Immunol. 2023 ;14 1117760
      Cytoplasmic DNA is emerging as a pivotal contributor to the pathogenesis of inflammatory diseases and cancer, such as COVID-19 and lung carcinoma. However, the complexity of various cytoplasmic DNA-related pathways and their crosstalk remains challenging to distinguish their specific roles in many distinct inflammatory diseases, especially for the underlying mechanisms. Here, we reviewed the latest findings on cytoplasmic DNA and its signaling pathways in inflammatory lung conditions and lung cancer progression. We found that sustained activation of cytoplasmic DNA sensing pathways contributes to the development of common lung diseases, which may result from external factors or mutations of key genes in the organism. We further discussed the interplays between cytoplasmic DNA and anti-inflammatory or anti-tumor effects for potential immunotherapy. In sum, this review aids in understanding the roles of cytoplasmic DNAs and exploring more therapeutic strategies.
    Keywords:  COVID-19; STING; cytokine; cytoplasmic DNA; immunotherapy; innate immunity; interferon; lung cancer