bims-mitper Biomed News
on Mitochondrial Permeabilization
Issue of 2023‒01‒15
six papers selected by
Bradley Irizarry
Thomas Jefferson University

  1. Nat Commun. 2023 Jan 06. 14(1): 108
      Some forms of mitochondrial dysfunction induce sterile inflammation through mitochondrial DNA recognition by intracellular DNA sensors. However, the involvement of mitochondrial dynamics in mitigating such processes and their impact on muscle fitness remain unaddressed. Here we report that opposite mitochondrial morphologies induce distinct inflammatory signatures, caused by differential activation of DNA sensors TLR9 or cGAS. In the context of mitochondrial fragmentation, we demonstrate that mitochondria-endosome contacts mediated by the endosomal protein Rab5C are required in TLR9 activation in cells. Skeletal muscle mitochondrial fragmentation promotes TLR9-dependent inflammation, muscle atrophy, reduced physical performance and enhanced IL6 response to exercise, which improved upon chronic anti-inflammatory treatment. Taken together, our data demonstrate that mitochondrial dynamics is key in preventing sterile inflammatory responses, which precede the development of muscle atrophy and impaired physical performance. Thus, we propose the targeting of mitochondrial dynamics as an approach to treating disorders characterized by chronic inflammation and mitochondrial dysfunction.
  2. Trends Neurosci. 2023 Jan 10. pii: S0166-2236(22)00239-9. [Epub ahead of print]
      Efforts to understand how mitochondrial dysfunction contributes to neurodegeneration have primarily focussed on the role of mitochondria in neuronal energy metabolism. However, progress in understanding the etiological nature of emerging mitochondrial functions has yielded new ideas about the mitochondrial basis of neurological disease. Studies aimed at deciphering how mitochondria signal through interorganellar contacts, vesicular trafficking, and metabolic transmission have revealed that mitochondrial regulation of immunometabolism, cell death, organelle dynamics, and neuroimmune interplay are critical determinants of neural health. Moreover, the homeostatic mechanisms that exist to protect mitochondrial health through turnover via nanoscale proteostasis and lysosomal degradation have become integrated within mitochondrial signalling pathways to support metabolic plasticity and stress responses in the nervous system. This review highlights how these distinct mitochondrial pathways converge to influence neurological health and contribute to disease pathology.
    Keywords:  immunity; inflammation; metabolism; mitochondrial-derived vesicles; mitochondria–lysosome axis; quality control
  3. Clin Transl Oncol. 2023 Jan 13.
      Due to their key role in the pathogenesis of cancer through the regulation of apoptosis, the B-cell leukemia/lymphoma-2 (BCL-2) family proteins have been an attractive target for cancer therapy for the past decades. Throughout the years, many Bcl-2 family inhibitors have been developed, with Venetoclax being now successfully used in treating hematological malignancies. Although their effectiveness in the treatment of solid tumors is yet to be established, some preclinical evidence indicates their possible clinical application. This review aims to summarize current data from completed clinical trials that used Bcl-2 protein family inhibitors as monotherapy or in combination with other agents for the treatment of solid malignancies. We managed to include clinical trials of various phases which analyze the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of the drugs, as well as the effectiveness and adverse effects. Active and recruiting clinical trials are also briefly presented and future prospects and challenges are discussed.
    Keywords:  Bcl-2 inhibitors; Chemotherapy; Navitoclax; Oblimersen; Solid tumors; Venetoclax
  4. Int J Mol Sci. 2022 Dec 21. pii: 124. [Epub ahead of print]24(1):
      Mitochondrial myopathies represent a heterogeneous group of diseases caused mainly by genetic mutations to proteins that are related to mitochondrial oxidative metabolism. Meanwhile, a similar etiopathogenetic mechanism (i.e., a deranged oxidative phosphorylation and a dramatic reduction of ATP synthesis) reveals that the evolution of these myopathies show significant differences. However, some physiological and pathophysiological aspects of mitochondria often reveal other potential molecular mechanisms that could have a significant pathogenetic role in the clinical evolution of these disorders, such as: i. a deranged ROS production both in term of signaling and in terms of damaging molecules; ii. the severe modifications of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD)+/NADH, pyruvate/lactate, and α-ketoglutarate (α-KG)/2- hydroxyglutarate (2-HG) ratios. A better definition of the molecular mechanisms at the basis of their pathogenesis could improve not only the clinical approach in terms of diagnosis, prognosis, and therapy of these myopathies but also deepen the knowledge of mitochondrial medicine in general.
    Keywords:  electron respiratory chain; mitochondria; mitochondrial DNA; mutations; oxidative metabolism; reactive oxygen species
  5. Front Biosci (Landmark Ed). 2022 12 27. 27(12): 333
      BACKGROUND: The roles of plasma cell-free (pcf) mitochondrial DNA (mtDNApcf) and nuclear DNA (nDNApcf) in the pathogenesis of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) remain unclear. We analyzed the relative copies of mtDNApcf and nDNApcf and investigated their association with the levels of plasma 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG), plasma malondialdehyde (MDA) and mRNA of leukocyte C-type lectin domain family 5 member A (CLEC5A) in SLE patients.METHODS: A total of 80 SLE patients and 43 healthy controls (HCs) were enrolled. Their plasma samples were subjected to the measurements of mtDNApcf copies, nDNApcf copies, 8-OHdG and MDA, respectively. Their leukocytes were analyzed for CLEC5A mRNA expression.
    RESULTS: SLE patients had higher nDNApcf copies (2.84 ± 1.99 vs. 2.00 ± 0.88, p = 0.002), lower mtDNApcf copies (4.81 ± 6.33 vs. 9.83 ± 14.20, p = 0.032), higher plasma 8-OHdG (0.227 ± 0.085 vs. 0.199 ± 0.041 ng/mL, p = 0.016), lower plasma MDA (3.02 ± 2.20 vs. 4.37 ± 2.16 μM, p = 0.001) and similar leukocyte CLEC5A mRNA expression levels (1.21 ± 1.17 vs. 1.26 ± 1.05, p = 0.870), as compared with those of HCs. Among the HCs, SLE patients with SLE Disease Activity Index (SLEDAI) ≤8, and SLE patients with SLEDAI >8, their respective mtDNApcf copies decreased stepwisely (9.83 ± 14.20 vs. 6.28 ± 7.91 vs. 3.19 ± 3.35, p = 0.054). The nDNApcf copies of HCs, SLE patients without nephritis, and SLE patients with nephritis were increased stepwisely (2.00 ± 0.88 vs. 2.63 ± 1.74 vs. 3.16 ± 2.34, p = 0.043). Among SLE patients, higher nDNApcf copies were associated with higher levels of plasma 8-OHdG (p < 0.001) but lower plasma MDA (p = 0.019). Among HCs but not SLE patients, higher nDNApcf copies (p = 0.013) or lower mtDNApcf copies (p < 0.001) were related to higher levels of leukocyte CLEC5A mRNA expression.
    CONCLUSIONS: Higher nDNApcf, lower mtDNApcf, increased ROS-elicited oxidative DNA damage and dysregulated leukocyte CLEC5A expression might be implicated in the pathogenesis of SLE.
    Keywords:  8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG); C-type lectin domain family 5 member A (CLEC5A); malondialdehyde (MDA); plasma cell-free mitochondrial DNA (mtDNApcf); plasma cell-free nuclear DNA (nDNApcf); systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE)
  6. J Biomol Struct Dyn. 2023 Jan 09. 1-10
      Human mitochondria are the vital cell organelle acting as a storehouse of energy generation and diverse regulatory functions. Mitochondrial DNA comprises 93% coding region and 7% non-coding regions, in which the non-coding region hypothesized as responsible for signaling is our specific interest. Here, we explored the unknown functions of mitochondrial non-coding RNAs by studying their respective signaling pathways. We retrieved conserved motifs of interactions from known experimental protein-RNA complexes to model unknown mitochondrial ncRNA sequences. Our results provide the ncRNAs list and show their involvement in four crucial pathways, such as (i) Processing of Capped Intron-Containing Pre-mRNA, (ii) Spliceosome, (iii) Spliceosomal assembly, and (iv) RNA Polymerase II Transcription, respectively. The interactome analysis revealed that the SRSF2 and U2AF2 proteins interact with ncRNAs. Further, we have simulated the selected ncRNA-protein complexes in cell-like environmental conditions and found them stable in terms of energetics. Through our study, we have identified an apparent interaction of mitochondrial ncRNAs with proteins and their role in critical signaling pathways, providing new insights into mitochondrial ncRNA-dependent gene regulation.Communicated by Ramaswamy H. Sarma.
    Keywords:  Nucleic acids; gene regulation; interactions networks; pathways; signaling