bims-mitper Biomed News
on Mitochondrial Permeabilization
Issue of 2022‒12‒11
eleven papers selected by
Bradley Irizarry
Thomas Jefferson University

  1. Cell Rep. 2022 Dec 06. pii: S2211-1247(22)01657-6. [Epub ahead of print]41(10): 111774
      Mitochondrial damage causes mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) release to activate the type I interferon (IFN-I) response via the cGAS-STING pathway. mtDNA-induced inflammation promotes autoimmune- and aging-related degenerative disorders. However, the global picture of inflammation-inducing mitochondrial damages remains obscure. Here, we have performed a mitochondria-targeted CRISPR knockout screen for regulators of the IFN-I response. Strikingly, our screen reveals dozens of hits enriched with key regulators of cristae architecture, including phospholipid cardiolipin and protein complexes such as OPA1, mitochondrial contact site and cristae organization (MICOS), sorting and assembly machinery (SAM), mitochondrial intermembrane space bridging (MIB), prohibitin (PHB), and the F1Fo-ATP synthase. Disrupting these cristae organizers consistently induces mtDNA release and the STING-dependent IFN-I response. Furthermore, knocking out MTX2, a subunit of the SAM complex whose null mutations cause progeria in humans, induces a robust STING-dependent IFN-I response in mouse liver. Taken together, beyond revealing the central role of cristae architecture to prevent mtDNA release and inflammation, our results mechanistically link mitochondrial cristae disorganization and inflammation, two emerging hallmarks of aging and aging-related degenerative diseases.
    Keywords:  CP: Cell biology; CP: Molecular biology; MICOS; Metaxin2; OPA1; SAM; cGAS-STING; cristae architecture; inflammation; mtDNA release; type I interferon response
  2. Rheumatol Immunol Res. 2021 Sep;2(3): 173-184
      Type I interferon (IFN-I) is implicated in the pathogenesis of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and the closely associated monogenic autoinflammatory disorders termed the "interferonopathies." Recently, the cytosolic DNA sensor cyclic guanosine monophosphate-adenosine monophosphate synthase (cGAS) and its downstream signaling adaptor stimulator of interferon genes (STING) have been identified as having important, if not central, roles in driving IFN-I expression in response to self-DNA. This review highlights the many ways in which this pathway is regulated in order to prevent self-DNA recognition and underlines the importance of maintaining tight control in order to prevent autoimmune disease. We will discuss the murine and human studies that have implicated the cGAS-STING pathway as being an important contributor to breakdown in tolerance in SLE and highlight the potential therapeutic application of this knowledge for the treatment of SLE.
    Keywords:  STING; cGAS; systemic lupus erythematosus; type I interferon
  3. Biochim Biophys Acta Bioenerg. 2022 Dec 06. pii: S0005-2728(22)00419-4. [Epub ahead of print] 148949
      Dysfunction of the aging heart is a major cause of death in the human population. Amongst other tasks, mitochondria are pivotal to supply the working heart with ATP. The mitochondrial inner membrane (IMM) ultrastructure is tailored to meet these demands and to provide nano-compartments for specific tasks. Thus, function and morphology are closely coupled. Senescent cardiomyocytes from the mouse heart display alterations of the inner mitochondrial membrane. To study the relation between inner mitochondrial membrane architecture, dynamics and function is hardly possible in living organisms. Here, we present two cardiomyocyte senescence cell models that allow in cellular studies of mitochondrial performance. We show that doxorubicin treatment transforms human iPSC-derived cardiomyocytes and rat neonatal cardiomyocytes in an aged phenotype. The treated cardiomyocytes display double-strand breaks in the nDNA, have β-galactosidase activity, possess enlarged nuclei, and show p21 upregulation. Most importantly, they also display a compromised inner mitochondrial structure. This prompted us to test whether the dynamics of the inner membrane was also altered. We found that the exchange of IMM components after organelle fusion was faster in doxorubicin-treated cells than in control cells, with no change in mitochondrial fusion dynamics at the meso-scale. Such altered IMM morphology and dynamics may have important implications for local OXPHOS protein organization, exchange of damaged components, and eventually the mitochondrial bioenergetics function of the aged cardiomyocyte.
    Keywords:  Cardiomyocytes; Cristae structure; Doxorubicin; Inner mitochondrial membrane dynamics; Mitochondrial fusion and fission dynamics; Senescence
  4. Open Biol. 2022 Dec;12(12): 220274
      Mitochondrial diseases are a broad, genetically heterogeneous class of metabolic disorders characterized by deficits in oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS). Primary mitochondrial disease (PMD) defines pathologies resulting from mutation of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) or nuclear genes affecting either mtDNA expression or the biogenesis and function of the respiratory chain. Secondary mitochondrial disease (SMD) arises due to mutation of nuclear-encoded genes independent of, or indirectly influencing OXPHOS assembly and operation. Despite instances of novel SMD increasing year-on-year, PMD is much more widely discussed in the literature. Indeed, since the implementation of next generation sequencing (NGS) techniques in 2010, many novel mitochondrial disease genes have been identified, approximately half of which are linked to SMD. This review will consolidate existing knowledge of SMDs and outline discrete categories within which to better understand the diversity of SMD phenotypes. By providing context to the biochemical and molecular pathways perturbed in SMD, we hope to further demonstrate the intricacies of SMD pathologies outside of their indirect contribution to mitochondrial energy generation.
    Keywords:  mitochondria; mitochondrial protein import; mitochondrial quality control; secondary mitochondrial disease
  5. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2022 Dec 01. pii: S0006-291X(22)01661-8. [Epub ahead of print]639 91-99
      The Transmembrane Carboxyl Terminal Domain (TMD) of some Bcl-2 family proteins has been demonstrated to play a key role in modulating apoptosis. We here ustilzed live-cell fluorescence imaging to evaluate how the Bcl-xL TMD (XT) regulate apoptosis. Cell viability assay revealed that XT had strong anti-apoptotic ability similarly to the full-length Bcl-xL. Fluorescence images of living cells co-expressing CFP-XT and Bad-YFP or YFP-Bax revealed that XT recruited Bad to mitochondria but prevented Bax translocation to mitochondria, and also significantly suppressed Bad/Bax-mediated apoptosis, indicating that XT prevents the pro-apoptotic function of Bad and Bax. Fluorescence Resonance Energy Transfer (FRET) analyses determined that XT directly interacted with Bad and Bax, and deletion of XT completely eliminated the mitochondrial localization and homo-oligomerization of Bcl-xL. Fluorescence images of living cells co-expressing CFP-XT and YFP-Bax revealed that XT significantly prevented mitochondrial Bax oligomerization, resulting in cytosolic Bax distribution. Collectively, XT is necessary for the mitochondrial localization and anti-apoptotic capacity of Bcl-xL, and XT, similarly to the full-length Bcl-xL, forms homo-oligomers on mitochondria to directly interact with Bad and Bax to inhibit their apoptotic functions.
    Keywords:  Apoptosis; Bcl-2 family proteins; Bcl-xL TMD; FRET; Fluorescence imaging; Living cell analysis
  6. J Transl Med. 2022 Dec 05. 20(1): 562
      Mitochondrial diseases (MD) are a heterogeneous group of multisystem disorders involving metabolic errors. MD are characterized by extremely heterogeneous symptoms, ranging from organ-specific to multisystem dysfunction with different clinical courses. Most primary MD are autosomal recessive but maternal inheritance (from mtDNA), autosomal dominant, and X-linked inheritance is also known. Mitochondria are unique energy-generating cellular organelles designed to survive and contain their own unique genetic coding material, a circular mtDNA fragment of approximately 16,000 base pairs. The mitochondrial genetic system incorporates closely interacting bi-genomic factors encoded by the nuclear and mitochondrial genomes. Understanding the dynamics of mitochondrial genetics supporting mitochondrial biogenesis is especially important for the development of strategies for the treatment of rare and difficult-to-diagnose diseases. Gene therapy is one of the methods for correcting mitochondrial disorders.
    Keywords:  Energy metabolism; Gene therapy; Heteroplasmy; Mitochondrial DNA; Mitochondrial diseases
  7. Front Immunol. 2022 ;13 1030610
      The highly conserved histones in different species seem to represent a very ancient and universal innate host defense system against microorganisms in the biological world. Histones are the essential part of nuclear matter and act as a control switch for DNA transcription. However, histones are also found in the cytoplasm, cell membranes, and extracellular fluid, where they function as host defenses and promote inflammatory responses. In some cases, extracellular histones can act as damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs) and bind to pattern recognition receptors (PRRs), thereby triggering innate immune responses and causing initial organ damage. Histones and their fragments serve as antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) to directly eliminate bacteria, viruses, fungi, and parasites in vitro and in vivo. Histones are also involved in phagocytes-related innate immune response as components of neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs), neutrophil activators, and plasminogen receptors. In addition, as a considerable part of epigenetic regulation, histone modifications play a vital role in regulating the innate immune response and expression of corresponding defense genes. Here, we review the regulatory role of histones in innate immune response, which provides a new strategy for the development of antibiotics and the use of histones as therapeutic targets for inflammatory diseases, sepsis, autoimmune diseases, and COVID-19.
    Keywords:  AMPs; DAMPs; histone modification; histones; innate immunity
  8. Brain. 2022 Dec 07. pii: awac464. [Epub ahead of print]
      Biallelic mutations in PINK1/PRKN cause recessive Parkinson's disease. Given the established role of PINK1/Parkin in regulating mitochondrial dynamics, we explored mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) integrity and inflammation as disease modifiers in carriers of mutations in these genes. MtDNA integrity was investigated in a large collection of biallelic (n = 84) and monoallelic (n = 170) carriers of PINK1/PRKN mutations, idiopathic Parkinson's disease patients (n = 67) and controls (n = 90). In addition, we studied global gene expression and serum cytokine levels in a subset. Affected and unaffected PINK1/PRKN monoallelic mutation carriers can be distinguished by heteroplasmic mtDNA variant load (AUC = 0.83, CI:0.74-0.93). Biallelic PINK1/PRKN mutation carriers harbor more heteroplasmic mtDNA variants in blood (p = 0.0006, Z = 3.63) compared to monoallelic mutation carriers. This enrichment was confirmed in iPSC-derived (controls, n = 3; biallelic PRKN mutation carriers, n = 4) and postmortem (control, n = 1; biallelic PRKN mutation carrier, n = 1) midbrain neurons. Lastly, the heteroplasmic mtDNA variant load correlated with IL6 levels in PINK1/PRKN mutation carriers (r = 0.57, p = 0.0074). PINK1/PRKN mutations predispose individuals to mtDNA variant accumulation in a dose- and disease-dependent manner.
    Keywords:  PINK1; PRKN; modifiers; mtDNA heteroplasmy; penetrance
  9. Front Mol Neurosci. 2022 ;15 1002846
      Neuropeptides can exert volume modulation in neuronal networks, which account for a well-calibrated and fine-tuned regulation that depends on the sensory and behavioral contexts. For example, oxytocin (OT) and oxytocin receptor (OTR) trigger a signaling pattern encompassing intracellular cascades, synaptic plasticity, gene expression, and network regulation, that together function to increase the signal-to-noise ratio for sensory-dependent stress/threat and social responses. Activation of OTRs in emotional circuits within the limbic forebrain is necessary to acquire stress/threat responses. When emotional memories are retrieved, OTR-expressing cells act as gatekeepers of the threat response choice/discrimination. OT signaling has also been implicated in modulating social-exposure elicited responses in the neural circuits within the limbic forebrain. In this review, we describe the cellular and molecular mechanisms that underlie the neuromodulation by OT, and how OT signaling in specific neural circuits and cell populations mediate stress/threat and social behaviors. OT and downstream signaling cascades are heavily implicated in neuropsychiatric disorders characterized by emotional and social dysregulation. Thus, a mechanistic understanding of downstream cellular effects of OT in relevant cell types and neural circuits can help design effective intervention techniques for a variety of neuropsychiatric disorders.
    Keywords:  emotional behavior; intracellular cascades; oxytocin; oxytocin receptor (OTR); social behavior; stress response; threat response
  10. Virol J. 2022 Dec 08. 19(1): 210
      In recent years, the traditional cognition of immunological memory being specific to adaptive immunity has been challenged. Innate immunity can mount enhanced responsiveness upon secondary stimulation, and a phenomenon is termed trained innate immunity. Trained innate immunity is orchestrated by distinct metabolic and epigenetic reprogramming in both circulating myeloid cells and myeloid progenitor cells in bone marrow, leading to long-term resistance to related and non-related pathogens infections. The induction of trained innate immunity can also polarize innate immune cells towards a hyperresponsive phenotype in the tumor microenvironment to exert antitumor effects. This review will discuss the current understanding of innate immune memory and the mechanisms during the induction of innate immunity, including signaling pathways, metabolic changes, and epigenetic rewriting. We also provide an overview of cross-protection against infectious diseases and cancers based on trained innate immunity.
    Keywords:  Cancer; Cross-protection; Immune response; Infection; Mechanism; Trained innate immunity
  11. Aging Dis. 2022 Dec 01. 13(6): 1901-1918
      Endothelial dysfunction develops gradually with age, and is the foundation of many age-related diseases in the elderly. The purpose of this study was to investigate the role of the cyclic GMP-AMP synthase (cGAS)-stimulator of interferon genes (STING) pathway in aging-related endothelial dysfunction. Endothelial functional parameters and biochemical indices of vascular function were examined in 2-, 6-, 12- and 24-month-old mice. Then, 6-month-old mice were administered RU.521, a specific inhibitor of cGAS, for 6 months, and endothelial functional parameters and biochemical indices of vascular function were re-examined. An in vitro model of cell senescence was established by treating human aortic endothelial cells (HAECs) with D-Galactose (D-GAL). Using inhibitors or siRNA interference, cGAS and STING were suppressed or silenced in senescent HAECs, and changes in the expression of eNOS, the senescence markers, p53, p21 and p16, components of the cGAS-STING pathway and Senescence-Associated β-galactosidase (SA-β-gal) staining were examined. Finally, cGAS, STING and p-IRF3 levels were measured in aorta tissue sections from eight patients. A decline in endothelial function, up-regulation of p53, p21 and p16 expression, and activation of the cGAS-STING pathway were observed in aging mice. Inhibition of cGAS was found to improve endothelial function and reverse the increased expression of aging markers. Our in vitro data demonstrated that D-GAL induced a decrease in eNOS expression and cell senescence, which could be partly reversed by cGAS inhibitor, STING inhibitor, siRNA-cGAS and siRNA-STING treatment. Higher expression levels of cGAS, STING and p-IRF3 were observed in aged human aortic intima tissue compared to young aortic intima tissue. Our study demonstrated that activation of the cGAS-STING pathway played a vital role in aging-related endothelial dysfunction. Thus, the cGAS-STING pathway may be a potential target for the prevention of cardiovascular diseases in the elderly.
    Keywords:  aging; cGAS-STING pathway; endothelial dysfunction; endothelial nitric oxide synthase