bims-mitper Biomed News
on Mitochondrial Permeabilization
Issue of 2022‒12‒04
fourteen papers selected by
Bradley Irizarry
Thomas Jefferson University

  1. Cell Death Differ. 2022 Nov 29.
      Mitochondria have recently emerged as key drivers of inflammation associated with cell death. Many of the pro-inflammatory pathways activated during cell death occur upon mitochondrial outer membrane permeabilization (MOMP), the pivotal commitment point to cell death during mitochondrial apoptosis. Permeabilised mitochondria trigger inflammation, in part, through the release of mitochondrial-derived damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs). Caspases, while dispensable for cell death during mitochondrial apoptosis, inhibit activation of pro-inflammatory pathways after MOMP. Some of these mitochondrial-activated inflammatory pathways can be traced back to the bacterial ancestry of mitochondria. For instance, mtDNA and bacterial DNA are highly similar thereby activating similar cell autonomous immune signalling pathways. The bacterial origin of mitochondria suggests that inflammatory pathways found in cytosol-invading bacteria may be relevant to mitochondrial-driven inflammation after MOMP. In this review, we discuss how mitochondria can initiate inflammation during cell death highlighting parallels with bacterial activation of inflammation. Moreover, we discuss the roles of mitochondrial inflammation during cell death and how these processes may potentially be harnessed therapeutically, for instance to improve cancer treatment.
  2. Trends Cell Biol. 2022 Nov 24. pii: S0962-8924(22)00252-5. [Epub ahead of print]
      Cyclic GMP-AMP (cGAMP) synthase (cGAS) senses misplaced genomic, mitochondrial, and microbial double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) to synthesize 2'3'-cGAMP that mobilizes stimulator of interferon genes (STING) to unleash innate immune responses, constituting a ubiquitous and effective surveillance system against tissue damage and pathogen invasion. However, imbalanced cGAS-STING signaling tethers considerably in infectious, autoimmune, malignant, fibrotic, and neurodegenerative diseases. Recently, multifaceted roles for cGAS-STING signaling at the cellular scale have emerged; these include autophagy, translation, metabolism homeostasis, cellular condensation, DNA damage repair, senescence, and cell death. These dominances adaptively shape cellular physiologies and impact disease pathogenesis. However, understanding how DNA sensing-initiated responses trigger these diverse cellular processes remains an outstanding challenge. In this review we discuss recent developments of cellular physiological states controlled by cGAS-STING machinery, as well as their disease relevance and underlying mechanisms, canonical or noncanonical. Ultimately, exploiting these cellular functions and mechanisms may represent promising targets for disease therapeutics.
    Keywords:  autophagy; cGAMP; cGAS-STING; condensation; innate immunity; metabolism; organelle; pathogenesis; senescence; translation
  3. Cell Regen. 2022 Dec 01. 11(1): 38
      Mitochondria are organelles that serve numerous critical cellular functions, including energy production, Ca2+ homeostasis, redox signaling, and metabolism. These functions are intimately linked to mitochondrial morphology, which is highly dynamic and capable of rapid and transient changes to alter cellular functions in response to environmental cues and cellular demands. Mitochondrial morphology and activity are critical for various physiological processes, including wound healing. In mammals, wound healing is a complex process that requires coordinated function of multiple cell types and progresses in partially overlapping but distinct stages: hemostasis and inflammation, cell proliferation and migration, and tissue remodeling. The repair process at the single-cell level forms the basis for wound healing and regeneration in tissues. Recent findings reveal that mitochondria fulfill the intensive energy demand for wound repair and aid wound closure by cytoskeleton remodeling via morphological changes and mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (mtROS) signaling. In this review, we will mainly elucidate how wounding induces changes in mitochondrial morphology and activity and how these changes, in turn, contribute to cellular wound response and repair.
    Keywords:  FZO-1; MFN-1/2; MIRO-1; Membrane repair; Mitochondrial dynamic; Mitochondrial fragmentation; Plasma membrane; Reactive oxygen species
  4. Neoreviews. 2022 Dec 01. 23(12): e796-e812
      Primary mitochondrial disorders (PMDs) are a heterogeneous group of disorders characterized by functional or structural abnormalities in the mitochondria that lead to a disturbance of cellular energy, reactive oxygen species, and free radical production, as well as impairment of other intracellular metabolic functions, causing single- or multiorgan dysfunction. PMDs are caused by pathogenic variants in nuclear and mitochondrial genes, resulting in distinct modes of inheritance. Onset of disease is variable and can occur in the neonatal period, with a high morbidity and mortality. In this article, we review the most common methods used for the diagnosis of PMDs, as well as their prenatal and neonatal presentations. We highlight the shift in the diagnostic approach for PMDs since the introduction of nontargeted molecular tests into clinical practice, which has significantly reduced the use of invasive studies. We discuss common PMDs that can present in the neonate, including general, nonsyndromic presentations as well as specific syndromic disorders. We also review current treatment advances, including the use of mitochondrial "cocktails" based on limited scientific evidence and theoretical reasoning, as well as the impending arrival of personalized mitochondrial-specific treatments.
  5. Redox Biol. 2022 Nov 23. pii: S2213-2317(22)00325-1. [Epub ahead of print]58 102553
      Endogenous small molecules are metabolic regulators of cell function. Itaconate is a key molecule that accumulates in cells when the Krebs cycle is disrupted. Itaconate is derived from cis-aconitate decarboxylation by cis-aconitate decarboxylase (ACOD1) in the mitochondrial matrix and is also known as immune-responsive gene 1 (IRG1). Studies have demonstrated that itaconate plays an important role in regulating signal transduction and posttranslational modification through its immunoregulatory activities. Itaconate is also an important bridge among metabolism, inflammation, oxidative stress, and the immune response. This review summarizes the structural characteristics and classical pathways of itaconate, its derivatives, and the compounds that release itaconate. Here, the mechanisms of itaconate action, including its transcriptional regulation of ATF3/IκBζ axis and type I IFN, its protein modification regulation of KEAP1, inflammasome, JAK1/STAT6 pathway, TET2, and TFEB, and succinate dehydrogenase and glycolytic enzyme metabolic action, are presented. Moreover, the roles of itaconate in diseases related to inflammation and oxidative stress induced by autoimmune responses, viruses, sepsis and IRI are discussed in this review. We hope that the information provided in this review will help increase the understanding of cellular immune metabolism and improve the clinical treatment of diseases related to inflammation and oxidative stress.
    Keywords:  Antioxidant therapeutics; COVID-19; IRG1; Inflammation; Itaconate; Metabolism
  6. Open Med (Wars). 2022 ;17(1): 1788-1796
      Pesticides, which adversely affect the critical metabolic processes of organisms, disrupt the physiological balance by specifically targeting enzymes and may lead to such consequences that may lead to death. It provides benefits in agricultural activities. The p53 protein antagonizes bcl-2, an anti-apoptotic protein character, and induces apoptosis by causing mitochondrial membrane permeability. This study aims to show the effect of acetamiprid, which is an insecticide from the neonicotinoid class, on bcl-2 and p53 immunoreactivity, which has an important place in the apoptotic mechanism in kidney tissue. A total of four groups including control and three experimental groups (the acetamiprid was administered 5, 10, and 15 mg kg-1) were formed in the study. After acetamiprid was administered via gavage for 14 days, the kidney tissues taken from the mice, which were sacrificed by cervical dislocation, were fixed in 10% formaldehyde solution for histological and immunohistochemical analyses, and as a result of routine tissue follow-up, the sections were blocked in paraffin and stained with haematoxylin-eosin and immunostaining. The histopathological examinations revealed that while the kidney tissue had a normal structure in the control group, degeneration in the distal and proximal tubules, glomerular degeneration, increase in the capsular area, glomerular atrophy, and haemorrhage were determined in the acetamiprid groups at increasing severity and frequency depending on the dose of the applied substance. In the kidney tissue, Bcl-2 and p53 immunoreactivity was observed in glomerular cells, sinusoidal epithelium, and proximal and distal tubule cells. The acetamiprid caused pathological changes in the kidneys in the dose range used. This effect also affects the expression of bcl-2 and p53 genes, which are biomarkers in the apoptotic mechanism. As acetamiprid accumulates in tissues, it increases the expression of p53 from cell death receptors, while suppressing the anti-apoptotic bcl-2 expression.
    Keywords:  acetamiprid; bcl-2; histopathology; immunoreactivity; kidney; p53
  7. Fish Shellfish Immunol. 2022 Nov 28. pii: S1050-4648(22)00796-3. [Epub ahead of print] 108463
      Transcription factors related to the activation of type I interferons (IFNs) and nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) are known to be critical in innate immune responses. Interferon regulatory factors (IRFs) are a family of transcription factors. IRF-3 is known to act as the primary regulator in type I IFN signaling in response to viral infections, and the upregulation of IRF5 by virus infection has been reported in various fish species. One of the ways to know the functional role of certain genes is the production of target gene(s) knockout cells or organisms. In the present study, we produced either IRF3 or IRF5 gene knockout Epithelioma papulosum cyprini (EPC) cells using a CRISPR/Cas9 system, and investigated the effect of IRF3 gene and IRF5 gene knockout on polyinosinic:polycytidylic acid (ploly (I:C))-mediated and viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV) infection-mediated type I IFN response and NF-κB activation. Both IRF3 knockout and IRF5 knockout EPC cells showed severely decreased type I IFN responses measured by ISRE activity and the expression of Mx1 and ISG15 genes when stimulated with poly (I:C), while the decreased level of type I IFN responses was not high as by poly (I:C) stimulation when infected with VHSV. Different from type I IFN response, NF-κB activities in IRF3 and IRF5 knockout cells were not highly different between poly (I:C) stimulated cells and VHSV-infected cells. Further studies are needed to elucidate pathways responsible for the type I IFN responses and NF-κB activation by VHSV infection.
    Keywords:  CRISPR/Cas9; IRF3; IRF5; Knockout; NF-κB; Poly (I:C); Type I interferon; VHSV
  8. J Cell Sci. 2022 Dec 01. pii: jcs259634. [Epub ahead of print]135(23):
      The appreciation of the importance of interorganelle contacts has steadily increased over the past decades. Advances in imaging, molecular biology and bioinformatic techniques allowed the discovery of new mechanisms involved in the interaction and communication between organelles, providing novel insights into the inner works of a cell. In this Review, with the mitochondria under the spotlight, we discuss the most recent findings on the mechanisms mediating the communication between organelles, focusing on Ca2+ signaling, lipid exchange, cell death and stress responses. Notably, we introduce a new integrative perspective to signaling networks that is regulated by interorganelle interactions - the mitochondria-associated niches - focusing on the link between the molecular determinants of contact sites and their functional outputs, rather than simply physical and structural communication. In addition, we highlight the neuropathological and metabolic implications of alterations in mitochondria-associated niches and outline how this concept might improve our understanding of multi-organelle interactions.
    Keywords:  Apoptosis; Bioenergetics; MAMs; Mitochondria; Mitochondria-associated membranes; Stress responses
  9. iScience. 2022 Dec 22. 25(12): 105502
      Mitochondria, semi-autonomous eukaryotic organelles, participate in energy production and metabolism, making mitochondrial quality control crucial. As most mitochondrial proteins are encoded by nuclear genes, maintaining mitochondrial function and quality depends on proper mitochondria-nucleus communication and designated mitochondrial retrograde signaling. Early studies focused on retrograde signaling participants and specific gene knockouts. However, mitochondrial signal modulation remains elusive. A mathematical model based on ordinary differential equations was proposed to simulate signal propagation to nucleus following mitochondrial damage in yeast. Mitochondrial retrograde signaling decisions were described using a Boolean model. Dynamics of retrograde signaling were analyzed and extended to evaluate the model response to noisy damage signals. Simulation revealed localized protein concentration dynamics, including waveforms, frequency response, and robustness under noise. Retrograde signaling is bistable with localized steady states, and increased damage compromises robustness. We elucidated mitochondrial retrograde signaling, thus providing a basis for drug design against yeast and fungi.
    Keywords:  Biological sciences; Cell biology; Systems biology
  10. Front Neurol. 2022 ;13 1026449
      Type I interferons (IFNs) are major mediators of innate immunity, with well-known antiviral, antiproliferative, and immunomodulatory properties. A growing body of evidence suggests the involvement of type I IFNs in the pathogenesis of central nervous system (CNS) manifestations in the setting of chronic autoimmune and autoinflammatory disorders, while IFN-β has been for years, a well-established therapeutic modality for multiple sclerosis (MS). In the present review, we summarize the current evidence on the mechanisms of type I IFN production by CNS cellular populations as well as its local effects on the CNS. Additionally, the beneficial effects of IFN-β in the pathophysiology of MS are discussed, along with the contributory role of type I IFNs in the pathogenesis of neuropsychiatric lupus erythematosus and type I interferonopathies.
    Keywords:  central nervous system; multiple sclerosis; neuropsychiatric lupus (NPSLE); type I IFN; type I interferonopathies
  11. Front Oncol. 2022 ;12 1043538
      Integrin α6β4 is highly expressed in triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) and drives its most aggressive traits; however, its impact on chemotherapeutic efficacy remains untested. We found that integrin α6β4 signaling promoted sensitivity to cisplatin and carboplatin but not to other chemotherapies tested. Mechanistic investigations revealed that integrin α6β4 stimulated the activation of ATM, p53, and 53BP1, which required the integrin β4 signaling domain. Genetic manipulation of gene expression demonstrated that mutant p53 cooperated with integrin α6β4 for cisplatin sensitivity and was necessary for downstream phosphorylation of 53BP1 and enhanced ATM activation. Additionally, we found that in response to cisplatin-induced DNA double strand break (DSB), integrin α6β4 suppressed the homologous recombination (HR) activity and enhanced non-homologous end joining (NHEJ) repair activity. Finally, we discovered that integrin α6β4 preferentially activated DNA-PK, facilitated DNA-PK-p53 and p53-53BP1 complex formation in response to cisplatin and required DNA-PK to enhance ATM, 53BP1 and p53 activation as well as cisplatin sensitivity. In summary, we discovered a novel function of integrin α6β4 in promoting cisplatin sensitivity in TNBC through DNA damage response pathway.
    Keywords:  ATM; DNA-PK; cisplatin sensitivity; homologous recombination; integrin signaling; mutant p53; non-homologous end joining; triple negative breast cancer
  12. Neurobiol Aging. 2022 Nov 06. pii: S0197-4580(22)00231-7. [Epub ahead of print]121 157-165
      Retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) damage is a major factor in age-related macular degeneration (AMD). The RPE in AMD shows mitochondrial dysfunction suggesting an association of AMD with mitochondrial function. Therefore, exogenous mitochondrial transplantation for restoring and replacing dysfunctional mitochondria may be an effective therapeutic strategy for AMD. Here, we investigated the effects of extrinsic mitochondrial transplantation on senescence-induced ARPE-19 cells. We demonstrated mitochondrial dysfunction in replicative senescence-induced ARPE-19 cells after repeated passage. Imbalanced mitophagy and mitochondrial dynamics resulted in increased mitochondrial numbers and elevated levels of mitochondrial and intracellular reactive oxygen species. Exogenous mitochondrial transplantation improved mitochondrial dysfunction and alleviated cellular senescence hallmarks, such as increased cell size, increased senescence-associated β-galactosidase activity, augmented NF-κB activity, increased inflammatory cytokines, and upregulated the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors p21 and p16. Further, cellular senescence properties were improved by exogenous mitochondrial transplantation in oxidative stress-induced senescent ARPE-19 cells. These results indicate that exogenous mitochondrial transplantation modulates cellular senescence and may be considered a novel therapeutic strategy for AMD.
    Keywords:  Age-related macular degeneration; Exogenous mitochondrial transplantation; Oxidative stress; Retinal pigment epithelium; Senescence
  13. Steroids. 2022 Nov 28. pii: S0039-128X(22)00190-8. [Epub ahead of print] 109151
      Escape from apoptosis is one of the main demeanor characteristics of cancer cells. Mitochondria are key players in initiating and regulating the intrinsic apoptosis pathway. Hexokinase2 (HK2) is ubiquitously expressed in several cancer cells and is essential for cell survival and death. The binding of HK2 to mitochondria promotes cell proliferation, while AKT-1 mediated pathway is crucial in this process. Peimine, a steroidal alkaloid derived from plant steroids, is screened for docking properties, ADMET properties, and drug-likeness. Apoptosis targets are predicted by network pharmacology using 47 genes associated with apoptosis. According to in silico study, peimine has the potential for dual Targeting on HK2 and AKT1. For further confirmation, peimine was subjected to Cell culture studies using MRMT-1 rat breast cancer cells. The elevated levels of cytochrome c and Caspase 9 activity indicate that the intrinsic apoptosis pathway causes cell death. The decreased glucose uptake by the MRMT-1 cells indicates that pimine inhibits glucose transport by inhibiting the membrane HK2.
    Keywords:  MRMT-1; Plant steroid; apoptosis; caspase 9; cytochrome C; peimine
  14. Biosystems. 2022 Nov 27. pii: S0303-2647(22)00200-3. [Epub ahead of print] 104819
      This short review provides basic knowledge on mitochondrial inheritance, its disorders, and potential ways to overcome them in human reproductive medicine. The latter are currently mostly associated with the so-called mitochondrial replacement (nuclear transfer) procedures, performed at different stages and with slight technical differences. Being promising but obviously highly invasive, these procedures require detailed investigation of their delayed effects on embryogenesis, pregnancy and future health. A special attention is paid to the newest available data on these issues, as well as to their limitations and possible further research directions.
    Keywords:  Maternal spindle transfer; Mitochondrial diseases; Mitochondrial inheritance; Mitochondrial replacement; Nuclear transfer; Polar body transfer; Pronuclear transfer; mtDNA