bims-mitper Biomed News
on Mitochondrial Permeabilization
Issue of 2022‒10‒23
six papers selected by
Bradley Irizarry
Thomas Jefferson University

  1. EMBO J. 2022 Oct 17. e111173
      Exposure of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) to the cytosol activates innate immune responses. But the mechanisms by which mtDNA crosses the inner mitochondrial membrane are unknown. Here, we found that the inner mitochondrial membrane protein prohibitin 1 (PHB1) plays a critical role in mtDNA release by regulating permeability across the mitochondrial inner membrane. Loss of PHB1 results in alterations in mitochondrial integrity and function. PHB1-deficient macrophages, serum from myeloid-specific PHB1 KO (Phb1MyeKO) mice, and peripheral blood mononuclear cells from neonatal sepsis patients show increased interleukin-1β (IL-1β) levels. PHB1 KO mice are also intolerant of lipopolysaccharide shock. Phb1-depleted macrophages show increased cytoplasmic release of mtDNA and inflammatory responses. This process is suppressed by cyclosporine A and VBIT-4, which inhibit the mitochondrial permeability transition pore (mPTP) and VDAC oligomerization. Inflammatory stresses downregulate PHB1 expression levels in macrophages. Under normal physiological conditions, the inner mitochondrial membrane proteins, AFG3L2 and SPG7, are tethered to PHB1 to inhibit mPTP opening. Downregulation of PHB1 results in enhanced interaction between AFG3L2 and SPG7, mPTP opening, mtDNA release, and downstream inflammatory responses.
    Keywords:  AFG3L2; MIMP; PHB; SPG7; mtDNA
  2. J Immunol. 2022 Nov 01. 209(9): 1625-1633
      Innate immunity is the first response to protect against pathogens and cellular insults. Pattern recognition receptors sense pathogen- and damage-associated molecular patterns and induce an innate immune response characterized by inflammation and programmed cell death (PCD). In-depth characterization of innate immune PCD pathways has highlighted significant cross-talk. Recent advances led to the identification of a unique inflammatory PCD modality called PANoptosis, which is regulated by multifaceted PANoptosome complexes that are assembled by integrating components from other PCD pathways. The totality of biological effects observed in PANoptosis cannot be accounted for by any other PCD pathway alone. In this review, we briefly describe mechanisms of innate immune cell death, including molecular mechanisms of PANoptosis activation and regulation. We also highlight the PANoptosomes identified to date and provide an overview of the implications of PANoptosis in disease and therapeutic targeting. Improved understanding of innate immune-mediated cell death, PANoptosis, is critical to inform the next generation of treatment strategies.
  3. Curr Top Microbiol Immunol. 2022 ;436 147-164
      Phosphoinositide-3-kinases (PI3Ks) are enzymes involved in signalling and modification of the function of all mammalian cells. These enzymes phosphorylate the 3-hydroxyl group of the inositol ring of phosphatidylinositol, resulting in lipid products that act as second messengers responsible for coordinating many cellular functions, including activation, chemotaxis, proliferation and survival. The identification of the functions that are mediated by a specific PI3K isoform is complex and depends on the specific cell type and inflammatory context. In this chapter we will focus on the role of PI3K isoforms in the context of innate immunity, focusing on the mechanisms by which PI3K signalling regulates phagocytosis, the activation of immunoglobulin, chemokine and cytokines receptors, production of ROS and cell migration, and how PI3K signalling plays a central role in host defence against infections and tissue injury.
    Keywords:  Inflammation; Innate immune response; Neutrophil activation; Neutrophil migration; Neutrophil survival; PI3K isoforms
  4. Biochem (Lond). 2022 Aug;44(4): 2-8
      Mitochondria, special double-membraned intracellular compartments or 'organelles', are popularly known as the 'powerhouses of the cell', as they generate the bulk of ATP used to fuel cellular biochemical reactions. Mitochondria are also well known for generating metabolites for the synthesis of macromolecules (e.g., carbohydrates, proteins, lipids and nucleic acids). In the mid-1990s, new evidence suggesting that mitochondria, beyond their canonical roles in bioenergetics and biosynthesis, can act as signalling organelles began to emerge, bringing a dramatic shift in our view of mitochondria's roles in controlling cell function. Over the next two and half decades, works from multiple groups have demonstrated how mitochondrial signalling can dictate diverse physiological and pathophysiological outcomes. In this article, we will briefly discuss different mechanisms by which mitochondria can communicate with cytosol and other organelles to regulate cell fate and function and exert paracrine effects. Our molecular understanding of mitochondrial communication with the rest of the cell, i.e. mitochondrial signalling, could reveal new therapeutic strategies to improve health and ameliorate diseases.
  5. Nat Rev Neurol. 2022 Oct 18.
      The variable clinical and biochemical manifestations of primary mitochondrial diseases (PMDs), and the complexity of mitochondrial genetics, have proven to be a substantial barrier to the development of effective disease-modifying therapies. Encouraging data from gene therapy trials in patients with Leber hereditary optic neuropathy and advances in DNA editing techniques have raised expectations that successful clinical transition of genetic therapies for PMDs is feasible. However, obstacles to the clinical application of genetic therapies in PMDs remain; the development of innovative, safe and effective genome editing technologies and vectors will be crucial to their future success and clinical approval. In this Perspective, we review progress towards the genetic treatment of nuclear and mitochondrial DNA-related PMDs. We discuss advances in mitochondrial DNA editing technologies alongside the unique challenges to targeting mitochondrial genomes. Last, we consider ongoing trials and regulatory requirements.
  6. Leuk Lymphoma. 2022 Oct 19. 1-10
      Recent reports discovered that red blood cells (RBCs) could scavenge cell-free mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA), which drives the accelerated erythrophagocytosis and innate immune activation characterized by anemia and inflammatory cytokine production. However, the clinical value of the circulating mtDNA copy number alterations in hematologic malignancies is poorly understood. Our data showed that in comparison to healthy group, the patients group had significantly higher mtDNA and histone H4 levels. Moreover, we observed that RBC-bound mtDNA and histone H4 were negatively correlated with hemoglobin in patients. In addition, cytokines and chemokines levels in patients differed significantly from normal controls (21 higher, 7 lower). Our study suggested that both circulating mtDNA and histone H4 were associated with anemia in hematologic malignancies, which helps to further understand the potential mechanism of anemia development in patients with hematologic malignancies. This information may play a vital role in the specific therapeutic interventions for leukemia in the future.
    Keywords:  Mitochondrial DNA; RBC; anemia; hematologic malignancies