bims-mionch Biomed News
on Mitochondrial ion channels
Issue of 2024‒05‒05
eight papers selected by
Gun Kim, Seoul National University

  1. Exp Mol Med. 2024 May 01.
      Traditionally, mitochondria are considered sites of energy production. However, recent studies have suggested that mitochondria are signaling organelles that are involved in intracellular interactions with other organelles. Remarkably, stressed mitochondria appear to induce a beneficial response that restores mitochondrial function and cellular homeostasis. These mitochondrial stress-centered signaling pathways have been rapidly elucidated in multiple organisms. In this review, we examine current perspectives on how mitochondria communicate with the rest of the cell, highlighting mitochondria-to-nucleus (mitonuclear) communication under various stresses. Our understanding of mitochondria as signaling organelles may provide new insights into disease susceptibility and lifespan extension.
  2. Mitochondrion. 2024 Apr 29. pii: S1567-7249(24)00049-7. [Epub ahead of print] 101891
      Recent studies revealed that mitochondria are not only a place of vitamin D3 metabolism but also direct or indirect targets of its activities. This review summarizes current knowledge on the regulation of ion channels from plasma and mitochondrial membranes by the active form of vitamin D3 (1,25(OH)2D3). 1,25(OH)2D3, is a naturally occurring hormone with pleiotropic activities; implicated in the modulation of cell differentiation, and proliferation and in the prevention of various diseases, including cancer. Many experimental data indicate that 1,25(OH)2D3 deficiency induces ionic remodeling and 1,25(OH)2D3 regulates the activity of multiple ion channels. There are two main theories on how 1,25(OH)2D3 can modify the function of ion channels. First, describes the involvement of genomic pathways of response to 1,25(OH)2D3 in the regulation of the expression of the genes encoding channels, their auxiliary subunits or additional regulators. Interestingly, intracellular ion channels, like mitochondrial, are encoded by the same genes as plasma membrane channels. Therefore, the comprehensive genomic regulation of the channels from these two different cellular compartments we analyzed using a bioinformatic approach. The second theory explores non-genomic pathways of vitamin D3 activities. It was shown, that 1,25(OH)2D3 indirectly regulates enzymes that impact ion channels, change membrane physical properties, or directly bind to channel proteins. In this article, the involvement of genomic and non-genomic pathways regulated by 1,25(OH)2D3 in the modulation of the levels and activity of plasma membrane and mitochondrial ion channels was investigated by an extensive review of the literature and analysis of the transcriptomic data using bioinformatics.
    Keywords:  1,25(OH)(2)D(3); Ion channels; Mitochondria; Mitochondrial ion channels; Vitamin D(3)
  3. PeerJ. 2024 ;12 e17260
      Chronic kidney disease (CKD) represents a significant global health concern, with renal fibrosis emerging as a prevalent and ultimate manifestation of this condition. The absence of targeted therapies presents an ongoing and substantial challenge. Accumulating evidence suggests that the integrity and functionality of mitochondria within renal tubular epithelial cells (RTECs) often become compromised during CKD development, playing a pivotal role in the progression of renal fibrosis. Mitophagy, a specific form of autophagy, assumes responsibility for eliminating damaged mitochondria to uphold mitochondrial equilibrium. Dysregulated mitophagy not only correlates with disrupted mitochondrial dynamics but also contributes to the advancement of renal fibrosis in CKD. While numerous studies have examined mitochondrial metabolism, ROS (reactive oxygen species) production, inflammation, and apoptosis in kidney diseases, the precise pathogenic mechanisms underlying mitophagy in CKD remain elusive. The exact mechanisms through which modulating mitophagy mitigates renal fibrosis, as well as its influence on CKD progression and prognosis, have not undergone systematic investigation. The role of mitophagy in AKI has been relatively clear, but the role of mitophagy in CKD is still rare. This article presents a comprehensive review of the current state of research on regulating mitophagy as a potential treatment for CKD. The objective is to provide fresh perspectives, viable strategies, and practical insights into CKD therapy, thereby contributing to the enhancement of human living conditions and patient well-being.
    Keywords:  Chronic kidney disease; Mitochondria; Mitophagy; Renal fibrosis
  4. Cold Spring Harb Perspect Med. 2024 May 01. pii: a041534. [Epub ahead of print]
      Mitochondria are semiautonomous organelles with diverse metabolic and cellular functions including anabolism and energy production through oxidative phosphorylation. Following the pioneering observations of Otto Warburg nearly a century ago, an immense body of work has examined the role of mitochondria in cancer pathogenesis and progression. Here, we summarize the current state of the field, which has coalesced around the position that functional mitochondria are required for cancer cell proliferation. In this review, we discuss how mitochondria influence tumorigenesis by impacting anabolism, intracellular signaling, and the tumor microenvironment. Consistent with their critical functions in tumor formation, mitochondria have become an attractive target for cancer therapy. We provide a comprehensive update on the numerous therapeutic modalities targeting the mitochondria of cancer cells making their way through clinical trials.
  5. Nat Rev Mol Cell Biol. 2024 Apr 30.
      Oxidation-reduction (redox) reactions are central to the existence of life. Reactive species of oxygen, nitrogen and sulfur mediate redox control of a wide range of essential cellular processes. Yet, excessive levels of oxidants are associated with ageing and many diseases, including cardiological and neurodegenerative diseases, and cancer. Hence, maintaining the fine-tuned steady-state balance of reactive species production and removal is essential. Here, we discuss new insights into the dynamic maintenance of redox homeostasis (that is, redox homeodynamics) and the principles underlying biological redox organization, termed the 'redox code'. We survey how redox changes result in stress responses by hormesis mechanisms, and how the lifelong cumulative exposure to environmental agents, termed the 'exposome', is communicated to cells through redox signals. Better understanding of the molecular and cellular basis of redox biology will guide novel redox medicine approaches aimed at preventing and treating diseases associated with disturbed redox regulation.
  6. ChemMedChem. 2024 May 02. e202400120
      Mitochondria, recognized as the cellular powerhouses, are indispensable organelles responsible for crucial cellular processes, such as energy metabolism, material synthesis, and signaling transduction. Their intricate involvement in a broad spectrum of diseases, particularly cancer, has propelled the exploration of mitochondria-targeting treatment as a promising strategy for cancer therapy. Since the groundbreaking discovery of cisplatin, the trajectory of research on the development of metal complexes have been marked by continuous advancement, giving rise to a diverse array of metallodrugs characterized by variations in ligand types, metal center properties, and oxidation states. By specifically targeting mitochondria, these metallodrugs exhibit the remarkable ability to elicit various programmed cell death pathways, encompassing apoptosis, autophagy, and ferroptosis. This review primarily focuses on recent developments in transition metal-based mitochondria-targeting agents, offering a comprehensive exploration of their capacity to induce distinct cell death modes. The aim is not only to disseminate knowledge but also to stimulate an active field of research toward new clinical applications and novel anticancer mechanisms.
    Keywords:  mitochondrial targeting metallodrugs, anticancer, cell death pathways, chemotherapy
  7. Talanta. 2024 Apr 10. pii: S0039-9140(24)00470-3. [Epub ahead of print]275 126091
      Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), as one of reactive oxygen species (ROS) widely present in the human body, is involved in a variety of physiological activities. Many human diseases are associated with abnormal levels of H2O2 in the body. Mitochondria are the main organelles producing H2O2 in the human body, and monitoring the level of H2O2 in mitochondria can help to deepen the understanding of the detailed functions of H2O2 in physiological activities. However, due to the highly dynamic nature of the cells, real-time quantitative monitoring of H2O2 levels in mitochondria remains an ongoing challenge. Herein, a novel highly immobilized mitochondria-targeting fluorescent probe (QHCl) for detection of H2O2 was reasonably constructed based on quinolinium dye containing benzyl chloride moiety. Spectral experimental results demonstrated QHCl possessed outstanding selectivity toward H2O2 (λex/em = 380/513 nm). In addition, QHCl can quantitatively detect H2O2 in the concentration range of 0-20 μM with excellent sensitivity (LOD = 0.58 μM) under the PBS buffer solution (10 mM, pH = 7.4). Finally, bioimaging experiments demonstrated that the probe QHCl was able to be used for accurately detecting both endogenous and exogenous H2O2 in the mitochondria of living cells and zebrafish by its unique mitochondrial immobilization.
    Keywords:  Bioimaging; Fluorescent probe; Hydrogen peroxide; Mitochondrial immobilization; Quinolinium dye
  8. JACC Basic Transl Sci. 2024 Apr;9(4): 519-521
    Keywords:  heart failure; hypertrophy; mitochondrial calcium overload; mitochondrial calcium uniporter; reactive oxygen species