bims-minfam Biomed News
on Inflammation and metabolism in ageing and cancer
Issue of 2024‒03‒24
23 papers selected by
Ayesh Seneviratne, Western University

  1. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci. 2024 Mar 22. pii: glae083. [Epub ahead of print]
      Aging is characterized by a progressive loss of cellular functions that increase the risk of developing chronic diseases, vascular dysfunction, and neurodegenerative conditions. The field of geroscience has identified cellular and molecular hallmarks of aging that may serve as targets for future interventions to reduce the risk of age-related disease and disability. These hallmarks include genomic instability, telomere attrition, epigenetic alterations, loss of proteostasis, deregulated nutrient-sensing, mitochondrial dysfunction, cellular senescence, stem cell exhaustion, and altered intercellular communication. Several studies show that exercise may favorably impact these processes and thereby have anti-aging properties. The primary mechanisms through which exercise confers protective benefits in the brain are still incompletely understood. To better understand these effects and leverage them to help promote brain health, we present current findings supporting the notion that adaptive responses to exercise play a pivotal role in mitigating the hallmarks of aging and their effects on the aging cerebrovasculature, and ultimately contribute to the maintenance of brain function across the health span.
    Keywords:  brain; cardiorespiratory fitness; cognition; hallmarks of aging
  2. Front Cell Dev Biol. 2024 ;12 1391626
    Keywords:  aging; cell regulation; cell signaling; regenerative medicine; stem cells
  3. bioRxiv. 2024 Mar 05. pii: 2024.03.02.583106. [Epub ahead of print]
      Clonal hematopoiesis becomes increasingly common with age, but its cause is enigmatic because driver mutations are often absent. Serial observations infer weak selection indicating variants are acquired much earlier in life with unexplained initial growth spurts. Here we use fluctuating CpG methylation as a lineage marker to track stem cell clonal dynamics of hematopoiesis. We show, via the shared prenatal circulation of monozygotic twins, that weak selection conferred by stem cell variation created before birth can reliably yield clonal hematopoiesis later in life. Theory indicates weak selection will lead to dominance given enough time and large enough population sizes. Human hematopoiesis satisfies both these conditions. Stochastic loss of weakly selected variants is naturally prevented by the expansion of stem cell lineages during development. The dominance of stem cell clones created before birth is supported by blood fluctuating CpG methylation patterns that exhibit low correlation between unrelated individuals but are highly correlated between many elderly monozygotic twins. Therefore, clonal hematopoiesis driven by weak selection in later life appears to reflect variation created before birth.
  4. Leukemia. 2024 Mar 21.
      Clonal hematopoiesis (CH) defines a premalignant state predominantly found in older persons that increases the risk of developing hematologic malignancies and age-related inflammatory diseases. However, the risk for malignant transformation or non-malignant disorders is variable and difficult to predict, and defining the clinical relevance of specific candidate driver mutations in individual carriers has proved to be challenging. In addition to the cell-intrinsic mechanisms, mutant cells rely on and alter cell-extrinsic factors from the bone marrow (BM) niche, which complicates the prediction of a mutant cell's fate in a shifting pre-malignant microenvironment. Therefore, identifying the insidious and potentially broad impact of driver mutations on supportive niches and immune function in CH aims to understand the subtle differences that enable driver mutations to yield different clinical outcomes. Here, we review the changes in the aging BM niche and the emerging evidence supporting the concept that CH can progressively alter components of the local BM microenvironment. These alterations may have profound implications for the functionality of the osteo-hematopoietic niche and overall bone health, consequently fostering a conducive environment for the continued development and progression of CH. We also provide an overview of the latest technology developments to study the spatiotemporal dependencies in the CH BM niche, ideally in the context of longitudinal studies following CH over time. Finally, we discuss aspects of CH carrier management in clinical practice, based on work from our group and others.
  5. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2024 Mar 26. pii: S0735-1097(24)00278-X. [Epub ahead of print]83(12): 1160-1162
    Keywords:  aging; cognition; congenital heart defects; frailty; frailty phenotype
  6. Nat Aging. 2024 Mar;4(3): 364-378
      Age is the primary risk factor for Parkinson's disease (PD), but how aging changes the expression and regulatory landscape of the brain remains unclear. Here we present a single-nuclei multiomic study profiling shared gene expression and chromatin accessibility of young, aged and PD postmortem midbrain samples. Combined multiomic analysis along a pseudopathogenesis trajectory reveals that all glial cell types are affected by age, but microglia and oligodendrocytes are further altered in PD. We present evidence for a disease-associated oligodendrocyte subtype and identify genes lost over the aging and disease process, including CARNS1, that may predispose healthy cells to develop a disease-associated phenotype. Surprisingly, we found that chromatin accessibility changed little over aging or PD within the same cell types. Peak-gene association patterns, however, are substantially altered during aging and PD, identifying cell-type-specific chromosomal loci that contain PD-associated single-nucleotide polymorphisms. Our study suggests a previously undescribed role for oligodendrocytes in aging and PD.
  7. Ageing Res Rev. 2024 Mar 16. pii: S1568-1637(24)00092-8. [Epub ahead of print] 102274
      In recent years, intermittent fasting (IF) and its numerous modifications have been increasingly suggested as a promising therapy for age-related problems and a non-pharmacological strategy to extend lifespan. Despite the great variability in feeding schedules that we describe in the current work, underlying physiological processes are the same and include a periodic switch from glucose metabolism (generated by glycogenolysis) to fatty acids and fatty acid-derived ketones. Many of the beneficial effects of IF appear to be mediated by optimization of energy utilization. Findings to date from both human and animal experiments indicate that fasting improves physiological function, enhances performance, and slows aging and disease processes. In this review, we discuss some of the remarkable discoveries about the beneficial effects of IF on metabolism, endocrine and cardiovascular systems, cancer prevention, brain health, neurodegeneration and aging. Experimental studies on rodent models and human investigations are summarized to compare the outcomes and underlying mechanisms of IF. Metabolic and cellular responses triggered by IF could help to achieve the aim of preventing disease, and maximizing healthspan and longevity with minimal side effects.
    Keywords:  aging; health; intermittent fasting; nutrition
  8. Nat Rev Immunol. 2024 Mar 15.
      Tissue inflammation is a hallmark of tumour microenvironments. In the bone marrow, tumour-associated inflammation impacts normal niches for haematopoietic progenitor cells and mature immune cells and supports the outgrowth and survival of malignant cells residing in these niche compartments. This Review provides an overview of our current understanding of inflammatory changes in the bone marrow microenvironment of myeloid and lymphoid malignancies, using acute myeloid leukaemia and multiple myeloma as examples and highlights unique and shared features of inflammation in niches for progenitor cells and plasma cells. Importantly, inflammation exerts profoundly different effects on normal bone marrow niches in these malignancies, and we provide context for possible drivers of these divergent effects. We explore the role of tumour cells in inflammatory changes, as well as the role of cellular constituents of normal bone marrow niches, including myeloid cells and stromal cells. Integrating knowledge of disease-specific dynamics of malignancy-associated bone marrow inflammation will provide a necessary framework for future targeting of these processes to improve patient outcome.
  9. Ageing Res Rev. 2024 Mar 15. pii: S1568-1637(24)00090-4. [Epub ahead of print]96 102272
      The aging population worldwide has led to an increased request for surgical interventions in older, geriatric, and frail patients. However, all the physiological changes related to aging are associated with many challenges in the perioperative period, strongly impacting surgical outcomes. Nutritional status plays a pivotal role in determining the resilience of older adults to surgical stress and their ability to recover postoperatively. It is well known that malnutrition, a prevalent concern in geriatrics, is linked to increased adverse outcomes, including morbidity and mortality. Recognizing the significance of preoperative nutritional screening, assessment, diagnosis, intervention, and monitoring is essential for optimizing surgical outcomes. In this context, immunonutrition, which involves the supplementation of specific nutrients to modulate immune responses, emerges as a promising strategy to mitigate the increased inflammatory response observed in geriatric surgical patients. This study reviews current literature on the impact of nutrition and immunonutrition on surgical outcomes in geriatrics, highlighting the potential benefits in terms of reduced complications, enhanced wound healing, and shortened hospital stays. Recognizing and addressing the specific nutritional needs of older persons undergoing surgery is essential for promoting successful surgical outcomes and improving overall quality of life in this vulnerable population.
    Keywords:  Aging; Frailty; Immunity; Nutrition; Surgery
  10. Cancer Med. 2024 Mar;13(5): e7093
      BACKGROUND: The occurrence of somatic mutations in patients with no evidence of hematological disorders is called clonal hematopoiesis (CH). CH, whose subtypes include CH of indeterminate potential and clonal cytopenia of undetermined significance, has been associated with both hematologic cancers and systemic comorbidities. However, CH's effect on patients, especially those with concomitant malignancies, is not fully understood.METHODS: We performed a retrospective evaluation of all patients with CH at a tertiary cancer center. Patient characteristics, mutational data, and outcomes were collected and analyzed.
    RESULTS: Of 78 individuals included, 59 (76%) had a history of cancer and 60 (77%) had moderate to severe comorbidity burdens. DNMT3A, TET2, TP53, and ASXL1 were the most common mutations. For the entire cohort, the 2-year overall survival rate was 79% (95% CI: 70, 90), while the median survival was not reached. Of 20 observed deaths, most were related to primary malignancies (n = 7, 35%), comorbidities (n = 4, 20%), or myeloid neoplasms (n = 4, 20%). Twelve patients (15%) experienced transformation to a myeloid neoplasm. According to the clonal hematopoiesis risk score, the 3-year transformation rate was 0% in low-risk, 15% in intermediate-risk (p = 0.098), and 28% in high-risk (p = 0.05) patients. By multivariate analysis, transformation was associated with variant allele frequency ≥0.2 and hemoglobin <10 g/dL.
    CONCLUSIONS: In a population including mostly cancer patients, CH was associated with comorbidities and myeloid transformation in patients with higher mutational burdens and anemia. Nevertheless, such patients were less likely to die of their myeloid neoplasm than of primary malignancy or comorbidities.
    Keywords:  CCUS; CHIP; clonal cytopenia of undetermined significance; clonal hematopoiesis; clonal hematopoiesis of indeterminate potential
  11. bioRxiv. 2024 Mar 08. pii: 2024.03.06.583755. [Epub ahead of print]
      Potential systemic factors contributing to aging-associated breast cancer (BC) remain elusive. Here, we reveal that the polyploid giant cells (PGCs) that contain more than two sets of genomes prevailing in aging and cancerous tissues constitute 5-10% of healthy female bone marrow mesenchymal stromal cells (fBMSCs). The PGCs can repair DNA damage and stimulate neighboring cells for clonal expansion. However, dying PGCs in advanced-senescent fBMSCs can form "spikings" which are then separated into membraned mtDNA-containing vesicles (Senescent PGC-Spiking Bodies; SPSBs). SPSB-phagocytosed macrophages accelerate aging with diminished clearance on BC cells and protumor M2 polarization. SPSB-carried mitochondrial OXPHOS components are enriched in BC of elder patients and associated with poor prognosis. SPSB-incorporated breast epithelial cells develop aggressive characteristics and PGCs resembling the polyploid giant cancer cells (PGCCs) in clonogenic BC cells and cancer tissues. These findings highlight an aging BMSC-induced BC risk mediated by SPSB-induced macrophage dysfunction and epithelial cell precancerous transition.SIGNIFICANCE: Mechanisms underlying aging-associated cancer risk remain unelucidated. This work demonstrates that polyploid giant cells (PGCs) in bone marrow mesenchymal stromal cells (BMSCs) from healthy female bone marrow donors can boost neighboring cell proliferation for clonal expansion. However, the dying-senescent PGCs in the advanced-senescent fBMSCs can form "spikings" which are separated into mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA)-containing spiking bodies (senescent PGC-spiking bodies; SPSBs). The SPSBs promote macrophage aging and breast epithelial cell protumorigenic transition and form polyploid giant cancer cells. These results demonstrate a new form of ghost message from dying-senescent BMSCs, that may serve as a systemic factor contributing to aging-associated immunosuppression and breast cancer risk.
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  12. Br J Clin Pharmacol. 2024 Mar 21.
      With population ageing, drug trials are increasingly turning their attention to including older, frailer people. This review aimed to provide an overview of how frailty was assessed in published studies related to clinical pharmacological trials, and on the interaction of frailty on the efficacy of the treatments. We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE and Cochrane for clinical drug trials in older people. A total of 4031 abstracts were screened and 17 relevant studies were included in this review. We summarized the findings of these 17 trials into five main clinical areas: cardiovascular (eight studies), cognition (one study), vaccination (two studies), cancer (four studies) and other (two studies). Frailty was assessed retrospectively in most of the studies. Frailty was treated as an ordinal variable (with different levels of frailty) or binary variable (frail/non-frail) using cut-offs in some studies, and as a continuous in some other studies. The effect of frailty on the treatment efficacy was not consistent among the studies. While several trials, such as the Action in Diabetes and Vascular Disease-Preterax and Diamicron Modified Release Controlled Evaluation trials, the Systolic Blood Pressure Intervention Trial and the Aspirin in Reducing Events in the Elderly trial, showed some reduced effects of the treatment in frail patients, most of the trials showed that the benefits of the treatment are not affected by frailty. Some trials even showed that the benefits of the treatment were more significant in frailer patients (the Dapagliflozin and Prevention of Adverse Outcomes in Heart Failure and the Dapagliflozin Evaluation to Improve the Lives of Patients with Preserved Ejection Fraction Heart Failure trials). The results of this review suggest that routine measurement of frailty in participants in clinical drug trials would improve our knowledge of the effect of treatment in the frail and identify those who have more or least to gain from treatment.
    Keywords:  clinical trials; frailty; older people; pharmacology; randomized controlled trials
  13. Endocr Rev. 2024 Mar 19. pii: bnae010. [Epub ahead of print]
      Multiple changes occur in hormonal regulation with aging and across various endocrine organs. These changes are associated with multiple age-related disorders and diseases. A better understanding of responsible underling biological mechanisms could help in the management of multiple endocrine disorders over and above hormone replacement therapy (HRT). Cellular senescence is involved in multiple biological aging processes and pathologies common in elderly individuals. Cellular senescence, which occurs in many older individuals but also across the lifespan in association with tissue damage, acute and chronic diseases, certain drugs, and genetic syndromes, may contribute to such endocrine disorders as osteoporosis, metabolic syndrome, and type II diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Drugs that selectively induce senescent cell removal, "senolytics", and drugs that attenuate the tissue-destructive secretory state of certain senescent cells, "senomorphics", appear to delay the onset or alleviate multiple diseases, including but not limited to endocrine disorders such as diabetes, complications of obesity, age-related osteoporosis, and cancers as well as atherosclerosis, chronic kidney disease, neurodegenerative disorders, and many others. Over thirty clinical trials of senolytic and senomorphic agents have already been completed, are underway, or are planned for a variety of indications. Targeting senescent cells is a novel strategy that is distinct from conventional therapies such as HRT, and thus might address unmet medical needs and can potentially amplify effects of established endocrine drug regimens, perhaps allowing for dose decreases and reducing side effects.
    Keywords:  SASP; cellular senescence; diabetes; endocrine diseases; osteoporosis; senolytics; senomorphics
  14. Trends Neurosci. 2024 Mar 06. pii: S0166-2236(24)00017-1. [Epub ahead of print]
      Middle age has historically been an understudied period of life compared to older age, when cognitive and brain health decline are most pronounced, but the scope for intervention may be limited. However, recent research suggests that middle age could mark a shift in brain aging. We review emerging evidence on multiple levels of analysis indicating that midlife is a period defined by unique central and peripheral processes that shape future cognitive trajectories and brain health. Informed by recent developments in aging research and lifespan studies in humans and animal models, we highlight the utility of modeling non-linear changes in study samples with wide subject age ranges to distinguish life stage-specific processes from those acting linearly throughout the lifespan.
    Keywords:  cognition; inflammation; machine learning; neurodegeneration; neuroimaging; omics
  15. Front Med (Lausanne). 2024 ;11 1384493
    Keywords:  bone aging; evidence; mechanisms; osteoporosis; plant-based natural products
  16. J Alzheimers Dis. 2024 Mar 19.
      Background: Caloric restriction (CR) has been recognized for its benefits in delaying age-related diseases and extending lifespan. While its effects on amyloid pathology in Alzheimer's disease (AD) mouse models are well-documented, its effects on tauopathy, another hallmark of AD, are less explored.Objective: To assess the impact of a short-term 30% CR regimen on age-dependent spatial learning deficits and pathological features in a tauopathy mouse model.
    Methods: We subjected male PS19 tau P301S (hereafter PS19) and age-matched wildtype mice from two age cohorts (4.5 and 7.5 months old) to a 6-week 30% CR regimen. Spatial learning performance was assessed using the Barnes Maze test. Tau pathology, neuroinflammation, hippocampal cell proliferation, and neurogenesis were evaluated in the older cohort by immunohistochemical staining and RT-qPCR.
    Results: CR mitigated age-dependent spatial learning deficits in PS19 mice but exhibited limited effects on tau pathology and the associated neuroinflammation. Additionally, we found a decrease in hippocampal cell proliferation, predominantly of Iba1+ cells.
    Conclusions: Our findings reinforce the cognitive benefits conferred by CR despite its limited modulation of disease pathology. Given the pivotal role of microglia in tau-driven pathology, the observed reduction in Iba1+ cells under CR suggests potential therapeutic implications, particularly if CR would be introduced early in disease progression.
    Keywords:  Alzheimer’s disease; calorie restriction; microglia; spatial learning; tauopathy
  17. Med Intensiva (Engl Ed). 2024 Mar 21. pii: S2173-5727(24)00045-6. [Epub ahead of print]
      OBJECTIVE: To describe and characterize a cohort of octogenarian patients admitted to the ICU of the University Central Hospital of Asturias (HUCA).DESIGN: Retrospective, observational and descriptive study of 14 months' duration.
    SETTING: Cardiac and Medical intensive care units (ICU) of the HUCA (Oviedo).
    PARTICIPANTS: Patients over 80 years old who were admitted to the ICU for more than 24 h.
    MAIN VARIABLES OF INTEREST: Age, sex, comorbidity, functional dependence, treatment, complications, evolution, mortality.
    RESULTS: The most frequent reasons for admission were cardiac surgery and pneumonia. The average admission stay was significantly longer in patients under 85 years of age (p = 0,037). 84,3% of the latter benefited from invasive mechanical ventilation compared to 46,2% of older patients (p = <0,001). Patients over 85 years of age presented greater fragility. Admission for cardiac surgery was associated with a lower risk of mortality (HR = 0,18; 95% CI (0,062-0,527; p = 0,002).
    CONCLUSIONS: The results have shown an association between the reason for admission to the ICU and the risk of mortality in octogenarian patients. Cardiac surgery was associated with a better prognosis compared to medical pathology, where pneumonia was associated with a higher risk of mortality. Furthermore, a significant positive association was observed between age and frailty.
    Keywords:  Ancianos; Evolución; Evolution; Frail elderly; Intensive care units; Mortalidad; Mortality; Outcome; Pronóstico; Unidad de cuidados intensivos
  18. Nat Commun. 2024 Mar 18. 15(1): 2428
      The molecular mechanisms of venetoclax-based therapy failure in patients with acute myeloid leukemia were recently clarified, but the mechanisms by which patients with myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) acquire secondary resistance to venetoclax after an initial response remain to be elucidated. Here, we show an expansion of MDS hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) with a granulo-monocytic-biased transcriptional differentiation state in MDS patients who initially responded to venetoclax but eventually relapsed. While MDS HSCs in an undifferentiated cellular state are sensitive to venetoclax treatment, differentiation towards a granulo-monocytic-biased transcriptional state, through the acquisition or expansion of clones with STAG2 or RUNX1 mutations, affects HSCs' survival dependence from BCL2-mediated anti-apoptotic pathways to TNFα-induced pro-survival NF-κB signaling and drives resistance to venetoclax-mediated cytotoxicity. Our findings reveal how hematopoietic stem and progenitor cell (HSPC) can eventually overcome therapy-induced depletion and underscore the importance of using close molecular monitoring to prevent HSPC hierarchical change in MDS patients enrolled in clinical trials of venetoclax.
  19. Mol Cell. 2024 Mar 11. pii: S1097-2765(24)00176-X. [Epub ahead of print]
      MCL-1 is essential for promoting the survival of many normal cell lineages and confers survival and chemoresistance in cancer. Beyond apoptosis regulation, MCL-1 has been linked to modulating mitochondrial metabolism, but the mechanism(s) by which it does so are unclear. Here, we show in tissues and cells that MCL-1 supports essential steps in long-chain (but not short-chain) fatty acid β-oxidation (FAO) through its binding to specific long-chain acyl-coenzyme A (CoA) synthetases of the ACSL family. ACSL1 binds to the BH3-binding hydrophobic groove of MCL-1 through a non-conventional BH3-domain. Perturbation of this interaction, via genetic loss of Mcl1, mutagenesis, or use of selective BH3-mimetic MCL-1 inhibitors, represses long-chain FAO in cells and in mouse livers and hearts. Our findings reveal how anti-apoptotic MCL-1 facilitates mitochondrial metabolism and indicate that disruption of this function may be associated with unanticipated cardiac toxicities of MCL-1 inhibitors in clinical trials.
    Keywords:  MCL-1; acyl-coenzyme A synthetase; apoptosis; fatty acid; metabolism; mitochondria; β-oxidation