bims-mimcad Biomed News
on Mitochondrial metabolism and cardiometabolic diseases
Issue of 2024‒05‒12
six papers selected by
Henver Brunetta, University of Guelph

  1. Redox Rep. 2024 Dec;29(1): 2347139
      OBJECTIVES: The objective of this study was to investigate whether skeletal muscle cystathionine γ-lyase (CTH) contributes to high-fat diet (HFD)-induced metabolic disorders using skeletal muscle Cth knockout (CthΔskm) mice.METHODS: The CthΔskm mice and littermate Cth-floxed (Cthf/f) mice were fed with either HFD or chow diet for 13 weeks. Metabolomics and transcriptome analysis were used to assess the impact of CTH deficiency in skeletal muscle.
    RESULTS: Metabolomics coupled with transcriptome showed that CthΔskm mice displayed impaired energy metabolism and some signaling pathways linked to insulin resistance (IR) in skeletal muscle although the mice had normal insulin sensitivity. HFD led to reduced CTH expression and impaired energy metabolism in skeletal muscle in Cthf/f mice. CTH deficiency and HFD had some common pathways enriched in the aspects of amino acid metabolism, carbon metabolism, and fatty acid metabolism. CthΔskm+HFD mice exhibited increased body weight gain, fasting blood glucose, plasma insulin, and IR, and reduced glucose transporter 4 and CD36 expression in skeletal muscle compared to Cthf/f+HFD mice. Impaired mitochondria and irregular arrangement in myofilament occurred in CthΔskm+HFD mice. Omics analysis showed differential pathways enriched between CthΔskm mice and Cthf/f mice upon HFD. More severity in impaired energy metabolism, reduced AMPK signaling, and increased oxidative stress and ferroptosis occurred in CthΔskm+HFD mice compared to Cthf/f+HFD mice.
    DISCUSSION: Our results indicate that skeletal muscle CTH expression dysregulation contributes to metabolism disorders upon HFD.
    Keywords:  Cystathionine γ-lyase; ferroptosis; high-fat diet; insulin resistance; oxidative stress; skeletal muscle
  2. J Clin Invest. 2024 May 09. pii: e165482. [Epub ahead of print]
      Newborn mammalian cardiomyocytes quickly transition from a fetal to an adult phenotype that utilizes mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation but loses mitotic capacity. We tested whether forced reversal of adult cardiomyocytes back to a fetal glycolytic phenotype would restore proliferative capacity. We deleted Uqcrfs1 (mitochondrial Rieske Iron-Sulfur protein, RISP) in hearts of adult mice. As RISP protein decreased, heart mitochondrial function declined, and glucose utilization increased. Simultaneously, they underwent hyperplastic remodeling during which cardiomyocyte number doubled without cellular hypertrophy. Cellular energy supply was preserved, AMPK activation was absent, and mTOR activation was evident. In ischemic hearts with RISP deletion, new cardiomyocytes migrated into the infarcted region, suggesting the potential for therapeutic cardiac regeneration. RNA-seq revealed upregulation of genes associated with cardiac development and proliferation. Metabolomic analysis revealed a decrease in alpha-ketoglutarate (required for TET-mediated demethylation) and an increase in S-adenosylmethionine (required for methyltransferase activity). Analysis revealed an increase in methylated CpGs near gene transcriptional start sites. Genes that were both differentially expressed and differentially methylated were linked to upregulated cardiac developmental pathways. We conclude that decreased mitochondrial function and increased glucose utilization can restore mitotic capacity in adult cardiomyocytes resulting in the generation of new heart cells, potentially through the modification of substrates that regulate epigenetic modification of genes required for proliferation.
    Keywords:  Bioenergetics; Cardiology; Cardiovascular disease; Metabolism; Mitochondria
  3. EMBO Mol Med. 2024 May 09.
      Mutations in CHCHD10, a mitochondrial protein with undefined functions, are associated with autosomal dominant mitochondrial diseases. Chchd10 knock-in mice harboring a heterozygous S55L mutation (equivalent to human pathogenic S59L) develop a fatal mitochondrial cardiomyopathy caused by CHCHD10 aggregation and proteotoxic mitochondrial integrated stress response (mtISR). In mutant hearts, mtISR is accompanied by a metabolic rewiring characterized by increased reliance on glycolysis rather than fatty acid oxidation. To counteract this metabolic rewiring, heterozygous S55L mice were subjected to chronic high-fat diet (HFD) to decrease insulin sensitivity and glucose uptake and enhance fatty acid utilization in the heart. HFD ameliorated the ventricular dysfunction of mutant hearts and significantly extended the survival of mutant female mice affected by severe pregnancy-induced cardiomyopathy. Gene expression profiles confirmed that HFD increased fatty acid utilization and ameliorated cardiomyopathy markers. Importantly, HFD also decreased accumulation of aggregated CHCHD10 in the S55L heart, suggesting activation of quality control mechanisms. Overall, our findings indicate that metabolic therapy can be effective in mitochondrial cardiomyopathies associated with proteotoxic stress.
    Keywords:  CHCHD10; High-Fat Diet; Mitochondrial Cardiomyopathy; Mitophagy
  4. J Mol Cell Cardiol. 2024 May 03. pii: S0022-2828(24)00064-6. [Epub ahead of print]191 50-62
      Exercise training can promote physiological cardiac growth, which has been suggested to involve changes in glucose metabolism to facilitate hypertrophy of cardiomyocytes. In this study, we used a dietary, in vivo isotope labeling approach to examine how exercise training influences the metabolic fate of carbon derived from dietary glucose in the heart during acute, active, and established phases of exercise-induced cardiac growth. Male and female FVB/NJ mice were subjected to treadmill running for up to 4 weeks and cardiac growth was assessed by gravimetry. Cardiac metabolic responses to exercise were assessed via in vivo tracing of [13C6]-glucose via mass spectrometry and nuclear magnetic resonance. We found that the half-maximal cardiac growth response was achieved by approximately 1 week of daily exercise training, with near maximal growth observed in male mice with 2 weeks of training; however, female mice were recalcitrant to exercise-induced cardiac growth and required a higher daily intensity of exercise training to achieve significant, albeit modest, increases in cardiac mass. We also found that increases in the energy charge of adenylate and guanylate nucleotide pools precede exercise-induced changes in cardiac size and were associated with higher glucose tracer enrichment in the TCA pool and in amino acids (aspartate, glutamate) sourced by TCA intermediates. Our data also indicate that the activity of collateral biosynthetic pathways of glucose metabolism may not be markedly altered by exercise. Overall, this study provides evidence that metabolic remodeling in the form of heightened energy charge and increased TCA cycle activity and cataplerosis precedes cardiac growth caused by exercise training in male mice.
  5. FASEB J. 2024 May 15. 38(9): e23654
      Heart failure and cardiac remodeling are both characterized by mitochondrial dysfunction. Healthy mitochondria are required for adequate contractile activity and appropriate regulation of cell survival. In the mammalian heart, enhancement of the mitochondrial unfolded protein response (UPRmt) is cardioprotective under pressure overload conditions. We explored the UPRmt and the underlying regulatory mechanism in terms of hypertension-induced cardiac remodeling and the cardioprotective effect of metformin. Male spontaneously hypertensive rats and angiotensin II-treated neonatal rat cardiomyocytes were used to induce cardiac hypertrophy. The results showed that hypertension induced the formation of aberrant mitochondria, characterized by a reduced mtDNA/nDNA ratio and swelling, as well as lower levels of mitochondrial complexes I to V and inhibition of the expression of one protein subunit of each of complexes I to IV. Such changes eventually enlarged cardiomyocytes and increased cardiac fibrosis. Metformin treatment increased the mtDNA/nDNA ratio and regulated the UPRmt, as indicated by increased expression of activating transcription factor 5, Lon protease 1, and heat shock protein 60, and decreased expression of C/EBP homologous protein. Thus, metformin improved mitochondrial ultrastructure and function in spontaneously hypertensive rats. In vitro analyses revealed that metformin reduced the high levels of angiotensin II-induced mitochondrial reactive oxygen species in such animals and stimulated nuclear translocation of heat shock factor 1 (HSF1). Moreover, HSF1 small-interfering RNA reduced the metformin-mediated improvements in mitochondrial morphology and the UPRmt by suppressing hypertrophic signals and cardiomyocyte apoptosis. These results suggest that HSF1/UPRmt signaling contributes to the beneficial effects of metformin. Metformin-mediated targeting of mitochondrial protein homeostasis and modulation of HSF1 levels have potential therapeutic implications in terms of cardiac remodeling.
    Keywords:  cardiac remodeling; heat shock factor 1; hypertension; metformin; mitochondrial unfolded protein response
  6. Redox Biol. 2024 May 05. pii: S2213-2317(24)00162-9. [Epub ahead of print]73 103184
      RATIONALE: The disruption of the balance between fatty acid (FA) uptake and oxidation (FAO) leads to cardiac lipotoxicity, serving as the driving force behind diabetic cardiomyopathy (DbCM). Sirtuin 5 (Sirt5), a lysine de-succinylase, could impact diverse metabolic pathways, including FA metabolism. Nevertheless, the precise roles of Sirt5 in cardiac lipotoxicity and DbCM remain unknown.OBJECTIVE: This study aims to elucidate the role and underlying mechanism of Sirt5 in the context of cardiac lipotoxicity and DbCM.
    METHODS AND RESULTS: The expression of myocardial Sirt5 was found to be modestly elevated in diabetic heart failure patients and mice. Cardiac dysfunction, hypertrophy and lipotoxicity were exacerbated by ablation of Sirt5 but improved by forced expression of Sirt5 in diabetic mice. Notably, Sirt5 deficiency impaired FAO without affecting the capacity of FA uptake in the diabetic heart, leading to accumulation of FA intermediate metabolites, which mainly included medium- and long-chain fatty acyl-carnitines. Mechanistically, succinylomics analyses identified carnitine palmitoyltransferase 2 (CPT2), a crucial enzyme involved in the reconversion of fatty acyl-carnitines to fatty acyl-CoA and facilitating FAO, as the functional succinylated substrate mediator of Sirt5. Succinylation of Lys424 in CPT2 was significantly increased by Sirt5 deficiency, leading to the inactivation of its enzymatic activity and the subsequent accumulation of fatty acyl-carnitines. CPT2 K424R mutation, which mitigated succinylation modification, counteracted the reduction of enzymatic activity in CPT2 mediated by Sirt5 deficiency, thereby attenuating Sirt5 knockout-induced FAO impairment and lipid deposition.
    CONCLUSIONS: Sirt5 deficiency impairs FAO, leading to cardiac lipotoxicity in the diabetic heart through the succinylation of Lys424 in CPT2. This underscores the potential roles of Sirt5 and CPT2 as therapeutic targets for addressing DbCM.
    Keywords:  Carnitine palmitoyltransferase 2; Diabetic cardiomyopathy; Fatty acid oxidation; Lysine succinylation; Sirtuin 5