bims-mimcad Biomed News
on Mitochondrial metabolism and cardiometabolic diseases
Issue of 2024‒03‒17
ten papers selected by
Henver Brunetta, University of Guelph

  1. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2024 Mar 13.
      In rodents, loss of estradiol (E2) reduces brown adipose tissue (BAT) metabolic activity. Whether E2 impacts BAT activity in women is not known. BAT oxidative metabolism was measured in premenopausal (N=27, 35±9 years, body mass index (BMI) = 26.0±5.3 kg/m2) and postmenopausal (N=25, 51±8 years, BMI = 28.0±5.0 kg/m2) women at room temperature (RT) and during acute cold exposure using [11C]-acetate with positron emission tomography coupled with computed tomography (PET/CT). BAT glucose uptake was also measured during acute cold exposure using 2-deoxy-2-[18F]fluoro-D-glucose ([18F]FDG). To isolate the effects of ovarian hormones from biological aging, measurements were repeated in a subset of premenopausal women (N=8, 40±4 years, BMI = 28.0±7.2 kg/m2) after 6 months of gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist (GnRHAG) therapy to suppress ovarian hormones. At RT, there was no difference in BAT oxidative metabolism between premenopausal (0.56±0.31.min-1) and postmenopausal women (0.63±0.28.min-1). During cold exposure, BAT oxidative metabolism (1.28±0.85 vs. 0.91±0.63.min-1, P=0.03) and net BAT glucose uptake (84.4±82.5 vs. 29.7±31.4 nmol.g-1.min-1, P<0.01) were higher in premenopausal than postmenopausal women. In premenopausal women who underwent GnRHAG, cold-stimulated BAT oxidative metabolism was reduced to a similar level (from 1.36±0.66.min-1 to 0.91±0.41.min-1) to that observed in postmenopausal women (0.91±0.63.min-1). These results provide the first evidence in humans that reproductive hormones are associated with BAT oxidative metabolism and suggest that BAT may be a target to attenuate age-related reduction in energy expenditure and maintain metabolic health in postmenopausal women.
    Keywords:  Cold-induced thermogenesis; energy metabolism; estradiol; human; positron emission tomography
  2. ESC Heart Fail. 2024 Mar 13.
      AIMS: This study aimed to identify the impact of increased epicardial adipose tissue (EAT) and its regional distribution on cardiac function in patients with diastolic dysfunction.METHODS AND RESULTS: Sixty-eight patients with exertional dyspnoea (New York Heart Association ≥II), preserved ejection fraction (≥50%), and diastolic dysfunction (E/e' ≥ 8) underwent rest and stress right heart catheterization, transthoracic echocardiography, and cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR). EAT volumes were depicted from CMR short-axis stacks. First, the impact of increased EAT above the median was investigated. Second, the association of ventricular and atrial EAT with myocardial deformation at rest and during exercise stress was analysed in a multivariable regression analysis. Patients with high EAT had higher HFA-PEFF and H2FPEFF scores as well as N-terminal prohormone of brain natriuretic peptide levels (all P < 0.048). They were diagnosed with manifest heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF) more frequently (low EAT: 37% vs. high EAT: 64%; P = 0.029) and had signs of adverse remodelling indicated by higher T1 times (P < 0.001). No differences in biventricular volumetry and left ventricular mass (all P > 0.074) were observed. Patients with high EAT had impaired atrial strain at rest and during exercise stress, and impaired ventricular strain during exercise stress. Regionally increased EAT was independently associated with functional impairment of the adjacent chambers.
    CONCLUSIONS: Patients with diastolic dysfunction and increased EAT show more pronounced signs of diastolic functional failure and adverse structural remodelling. Despite similar morphological characteristics, patients with high EAT show significant cardiac functional impairment, in particular in the atria. Our results indicate that regionally increased EAT directly induces atrial functional failure, which represents a distinct pathophysiological feature in HFpEF.
    Keywords:  Cardiac function; Cardiovascular magnetic resonance; Diastolic dysfunction; Epicardial fat; HFpEF
  3. Metabolism. 2024 Mar 11. pii: S0026-0495(24)00060-X. [Epub ahead of print] 155834
      BACKGROUND: Circadian disruption is widespread and increases the risk of obesity. Timing of therapeutic interventions may promote coherent and efficient gating of metabolic processes and restore energy homeostasis.AIM: To characterize the diurnal postexercise metabolic state in mice and to identify the influence of diet-induced obesity on identified outcomes.
    METHODS: C57BL6/NTac male mice (6wks of age) were fed a standard chow or high-fat diet for 5 weeks. At week 5, mice were subjected to a 60-min (16 m/min, 5 % incline) running bout (or sham) during the early rest (day) or early active (night) phase. Tissue and serum samples were collected immediately post-exercise (n = 6/group). In vivo glucose oxidation was measured after oral administration of 13C-glucose via 13CO2 exhalation analysis in metabolic cages. Basal and isoproterenol-stimulated adipose tissue lipolysis was assessed ex vivo for 1 h following exercise.
    RESULTS: Lean mice displayed exercise-timing-specific plasticity in metabolic outcomes, including phase-specificity in systemic glucose metabolism and adipose-tissue-autonomous lipolytic activity depending on time of day. Conversely, obesity impaired temporal postexercise differences in whole-body glucose oxidation, as well as the phase- and exercise-mediated induction of lipolysis in isolated adipose tissue. This obesity-induced alteration in diurnal metabolism, as well as the indistinct response to exercise, was observed concomitant with disruption of core clock gene expression in peripheral tissues.
    CONCLUSIONS: Overall, high-fat fed obese mice exhibit metabolic inflexibility, which is also evident in the diurnal exercise response. Our study provides physiological insight into exercise timing-dependent aspects in the dynamic regulation of metabolism and the influence of obesity on this biology.
    Keywords:  Adipose tissue; Circadian rhythm; Exercise; Lipolysis; Time of day
  4. FASEB J. 2024 Mar 15. 38(5): e23542
      Tipepidine (3-[di-2-thienylmethylene]-1-methylpiperidine) (TP) is a non-narcotic antitussive used in Japan. Recently, the potential application of TP in the treatment of neuropsychiatric disorders, such as depression and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, has been suggested; however, its functions in energy metabolism are unknown. Here, we demonstrate that TP exhibits a metabolism-improving action. The administration of TP reduced high-fat diet-induced body weight gain in mice and lipid accumulation in the liver and increased the weight of epididymal white adipose tissue (eWAT) in diet-induced obese (DIO) mice. Furthermore, TP inhibited obesity-induced fibrosis in the eWAT. We also found that TP induced AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) activation in the eWAT of DIO mice and 3T3-L1 cells. TP-induced AMPK activation was abrogated by the transfection of liver kinase B1 siRNA in 3T3-L1 cells. The metabolic effects of TP were almost equivalent to those of metformin, an AMPK activator that is used as a first-line antidiabetic drug. In summary, TP is a potent AMPK activator, suggesting its novel role as an antidiabetic drug owing to its antifibrotic effect on adipose tissues.
    Keywords:  3T3-L1 cells; AMP-activated protein kinase; adipose tissue fibrosis; glucose intolerance; hepatic steatosis; tipepidine
  5. J Mol Cell Cardiol. 2024 Mar 13. pii: S0022-2828(24)00034-8. [Epub ahead of print]189 83-89
      Diabetic heart disease morbidity and mortality is escalating. No specific therapeutics exist and mechanistic understanding of diabetic cardiomyopathy etiology is lacking. While lipid accumulation is a recognized cardiomyocyte phenotype of diabetes, less is known about glycolytic fuel handling and storage. Based on in vitro studies, we postulated the operation of an autophagy pathway in the myocardium specific for glycogen homeostasis - glycophagy. Here we visualize occurrence of cardiac glycophagy and show that the diabetic myocardium is characterized by marked glycogen elevation and altered cardiomyocyte glycogen localization. We establish that cardiac glycophagy flux is disturbed in diabetes. Glycophagy may represent a potential therapeutic target for alleviating the myocardial impacts of metabolic disruption in diabetic heart disease.
    Keywords:  Autophagy; Cardiac glycogen; Cardiac metabolism; Diabetic heart disease; Glycophagy
  6. J Biol Chem. 2024 Mar 11. pii: S0021-9258(24)01654-5. [Epub ahead of print] 107159
      In the present study, we examined the mitochondrial hydrogen peroxide (mH2O2) generating capacity of α-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase (KGDH) and compared it to components of the electron transport chain (ETC) using liver mitochondria isolated from male and female C57BL6N mice. We show for the first time there are some sex dimorphisms in the production of mH2O2 by ETC complexes I and III when mitochondria are fueled with different substrates. However, in our investigations into these sex effects, we made the unexpected discovery that: 1. KGDH serves as a major mH2O2 supplier in male and female liver mitochondria and 2. KGDH can form mH2O2 when mitochondria are energized with fatty acids, but only when malate is used to prime the Krebs cycle. Surprisingly, 2-keto-3-methylvaleric acid (KMV), a site-specific inhibitor for KGDH, nearly abolished mH2O2 generation in both male and female liver mitochondria oxidizing palmitoyl-carnitine. KMV inhibited mH2O2 production in liver mitochondria from male and female mice oxidizing myristoyl-, octanoyl-, or butyryl-carnitine. S1QEL 1.1 (S1) and S3QEL 2 (S3), compounds that inhibit reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation by complexes I and III, respectively, without interfering with OxPhos, had a negligible effect on the rate of mH2O2 production when pyruvate or acyl-carnitines were used as fuels. However, inclusion of KMV in reaction mixtures containing S1 and/or S3 almost abolished mH2O2 generation. Together, our findings suggest KGDH is the main mH2O2 generator in liver mitochondria, even when fatty acids are used as fuel.
  7. Eur J Heart Fail. 2024 Mar 11.
      AIMS: Patients with heart failure and reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF) exhibit skeletal muscle pathology, which contributes to symptoms and decreased quality of life. Sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitors (SGLT2i) improve clinical outcomes in HFrEF but their mechanism of action remains poorly understood. We aimed, therefore, to determine whether SGLT2i influence skeletal muscle pathology in patients with HFrEF.METHODS AND RESULTS: Muscle biopsies from 28 male patients with HFrEF (New York Heart association class I-III) treated with SGLT2i (>12 months) or without SGLT2i were compared. Comprehensive analyses of muscle structure (immunohistochemistry), transcriptome (RNA sequencing), and metabolome (liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry) were performed, and serum inflammatory profiling (ELISA). Experiments in mice (n = 16) treated with SGLT2i were also performed. Myofiber atrophy was ~20% less in patients taking SGLT2i (p = 0.07). Transcriptomics and follow-up measures identified a unique signature in patients taking SGLT2i related to beneficial effects on atrophy, metabolism, and inflammation. Metabolomics identified influenced tryptophan metabolism in patients taking SGLT2i: kynurenic acid was 24% higher and kynurenine was 32% lower (p < 0.001). Serum profiling identified that SGLT2i treatment was associated with lower (p < 0.05) pro-inflammatory cytokines by 26-64% alongside downstream muscle interleukin (IL)-6-JAK/STAT3 signalling (p = 008 and 0.09). Serum IL-6 and muscle kynurenine were correlated (R = 0.65; p < 0.05). Muscle pathology was lower in mice treated with SGLT2i indicative of a conserved mammalian response to treatment.
    CONCLUSIONS: Treatment with SGLT2i influenced skeletal muscle pathology in patients with HFrEF and was associated with anti-atrophic, anti-inflammatory, and pro-metabolic effects. These changes may be regulated via IL-6-kynurenine signalling. Together, clinical improvements following SGLT2i treatment in patients with HFrEF may be partly explained by their positive effects on skeletal muscle pathology.
    Keywords:  Atrophy; HFrEF; Metabolism; Muscle; SGLT2 inhibitors
  8. Mol Metab. 2024 Mar 11. pii: S2212-8778(24)00045-0. [Epub ahead of print] 101914
      OBJECTIVE: The intrauterine environment during pregnancy is a critical factor in the development of obesity, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease in offspring. Maternal exercise prevents the detrimental effects of a maternal high fat diet on the metabolic health in adult offspring, but the effects of maternal exercise on offspring cardiovascular health have not been thoroughly investigated.METHODS: To determine the effects of maternal exercise on offspring cardiovascular health, female mice were fed a chow (C; 21% kcal from fat) or high-fat (H; 60% kcal from fat) diet and further subdivided into sedentary (CS, HS) or wheel exercised (CW, HW) prior to pregnancy and throughout gestation. Offspring were maintained in a sedentary state and chow-fed throughout 24 weeks of age and subjected to serial echocardiography and cardiomyocyte isolation for functional and mechanistic studies.
    RESULTS: High-fat fed sedentary dams (HS) produced female offspring with reduced ejection fraction (EF) compared to offspring from chow-fed dams (CS), but EF was preserved in offspring from high-fat fed exercised dams (HW) throughout 24 weeks of age. Cardiomyocytes from HW female offspring had increased kinetics, calcium cycling, and respiration compared to CS and HS offspring. HS offspring had increased oxidation of the RyR2 in cardiomyocytes coupled with increased baseline sarcomere length, resulting in RyR2 overactivity, which was negated in female HW offspring.
    CONCLUSIONS: These data suggest a role for maternal exercise to protect against the detrimental effects of a maternal high-fat diet on female offspring cardiac health. Maternal exercise improved female offspring cardiomyocyte contraction, calcium cycling, respiration, RyR2 oxidation, and RyR2 activity. These data present an important, translatable role for maternal exercise to preserve cardiac health of female offspring and provide insight on mechanisms to prevent the transmission of cardiovascular diseases to subsequent generations.
    Keywords:  RyR2; calcium; cardiac; cardiovascular; maternal; mitoROS; mitochondria; offspring; respiration
  9. Cardiol Rev. 2024 Mar 13.
      Epicardial adipose tissue (EAT) is located between the heart muscle and visceral pericardium, where it has direct contact with coronary blood vessels. Elevated thickness of this tissue can induce local inflammation affecting the myocardium and the underlying coronary arteries, contributing to various cardiovascular diseases such as coronary artery disease, atrial fibrillation, or heart failure with preserved ejection fraction. Recent studies have identified EAT thickness as a simple and reliable biomarker for certain cardiovascular outcomes. Examples include the presence of atherosclerosis, incident cardiovascular disease (CVD) in individuals with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), and the prevalence of atrial fibrillation. Furthermore, EAT measurements can help to identify patients with a higher risk of developing metabolic syndrome. Since the EAT thickness can be easily measured using echocardiography, such examinations could serve as a useful and cost-effective preventive tool for assessing cardiovascular health. This review also summarizes therapeutical interventions aimed at reducing EAT. Reducing EAT thickness has been shown to be possible through pharmacological, surgical, or lifestyle-change interventions. Pharmaceutical therapies, including thiazolidinediones, glucagon-like peptide 1-receptor agonists, sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitors, dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitors, and statins, have been shown to influence EAT thickness. Additionally, EAT thickness can also be managed more invasively through bariatric surgery, or noninvasively through lifestyle changes to diet and exercise routines.
  10. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2024 Mar 15. pii: dgae177. [Epub ahead of print]
      CONTEXT: Alterations in the lipid metabolism are linked to metabolic disorders such as insulin resistance (IR), obesity and type 2 diabetes (T2D). Regular exercise, particularly combined training (CT), is a well-known non-pharmacological treatment that combines aerobic (AT) and resistance (RT) training benefits. However, it is unclear whether moderate-intensity exercise without dietary intervention induces changes in lipid metabolism to promote a 'healthy lipidome'.OBJECTIVE: The study aimed to investigate the effect of 16 weeks of CT on plasma and white adipose tissue in both sexes, middle-aged subjects with normal weight, obesity and T2D using an ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS) untargeted lipidomics approach.
    METHODS: Body composition, maximum oxygen consumption (VO2 max), strength, and biochemical markers were evaluated before and after the control/training period and correlated with lipid changes. CT consisted of 8 to 10 RT exercises, followed by 35 min of AT (45 -70% VO2 max), 3 times a week for 16 weeks.
    RESULTS: The CT significantly reduced the levels of saturated and monounsaturated fatty acid side-chains (SFA/MUFA) in sphingolipids, glycerolipids (GL) and glycerophospholipids (GP) as well as reducing fat mass, circumferences and IR. Increased levels of polyunsaturated fatty acids in GPs, and GLs were also observed, along with increased fat-free mass, VO2 max, and strength (all p < 0.05) after training.
    CONCLUSION: Our study stated that 16 weeks of moderate-intensity CT remodelled the lipid metabolism in OB, and T2D individuals, even without dietary intervention, establishing a link between exercise-modulated lipid markers and mechanisms that reduce IR and obesity-related comorbidities.
    Keywords:  diabetes; exercise; insulin resistance; lipidomics; mass spectrometry; obesity