bims-mimcad Biomed News
on Mitochondrial metabolism and cardiometabolic diseases
Issue of 2024‒03‒03
eleven papers selected by
Henver Brunetta, University of Guelph

  1. J Cell Physiol. 2024 Feb 28.
      Mitochondria and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) contact sites (MERCs) are protein- and lipid-enriched hubs that mediate interorganellar communication by contributing to the dynamic transfer of Ca2+ , lipid, and other metabolites between these organelles. Defective MERCs are associated with cellular oxidative stress, neurodegenerative disease, and cardiac and skeletal muscle pathology via mechanisms that are poorly understood. We previously demonstrated that skeletal muscle-specific knockdown (KD) of the mitochondrial fusion mediator optic atrophy 1 (OPA1) induced ER stress and correlated with an induction of Mitofusin-2, a known MERC protein. In the present study, we tested the hypothesis that Opa1 downregulation in skeletal muscle cells alters MERC formation by evaluating multiple myocyte systems, including from mice and Drosophila, and in primary myotubes. Our results revealed that OPA1 deficiency induced tighter and more frequent MERCs in concert with a greater abundance of MERC proteins involved in calcium exchange. Additionally, loss of OPA1 increased the expression of activating transcription factor 4 (ATF4), an integrated stress response (ISR) pathway effector. Reducing Atf4 expression prevented the OPA1-loss-induced tightening of MERC structures. OPA1 reduction was associated with decreased mitochondrial and sarcoplasmic reticulum, a specialized form of ER, calcium, which was reversed following ATF4 repression. These data suggest that mitochondrial stress, induced by OPA1 deficiency, regulates skeletal muscle MERC formation in an ATF4-dependent manner.
    Keywords:  activating transcription factor 4; endoplasmic reticulum; integrated stress response; interorganelle communication; mitochondria
  2. Acta Physiol (Oxf). 2024 Feb 25. e14117
      AIM: To investigate effects of hormone replacement therapy in postmenopausal women on factors associated with metabolic flexibility related to whole-body parameters including fat oxidation, resting energy expenditure, body composition and plasma concentrations of fatty acids, glucose, insulin, cortisol, and lipids, and for the mitochondrial level, including mitochondrial content, respiratory capacity, efficiency, and hydrogen peroxide emission.METHODS: 22 postmenopausal women were included. 11 were undergoing estradiol and progestin treatment (HT), and 11 were matched non-treated controls (CONT). Peak oxygen consumption, maximal fat oxidation, glycated hemoglobin, body composition, and resting energy expenditure were measured. Blood samples were collected at rest and during 45 min of ergometer exercise (65% VO2 peak). Muscle biopsies were obtained at rest and immediately post-exercise. Mitochondrial respiratory capacity, efficiency, and hydrogen peroxide emission in permeabilized fibers and isolated mitochondria were measured, and citrate synthase (CS) and 3-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase (HAD) activity were assessed.
    RESULTS: HT showed higher absolute mitochondrial respiratory capacity and post-exercise hydrogen peroxide emission in permeabilized fibers and higher CS and HAD activities. All respiration normalized to CS activity showed no significant group differences in permeabilized fibers or isolated mitochondria. There were no differences in resting energy expenditure, maximal, and resting fat oxidation or plasma markers. HT had significantly lower visceral and total fat mass compared to CONT.
    CONCLUSION: Use of hormone therapy is associated with higher mitochondrial content and respiratory capacity and a lower visceral and total fat mass. Resting energy expenditure and fat oxidation did not differ between HT and CONT.
    Keywords:  hormone replacement therapy; metabolic flexibility; mitochondrial function
  3. Nat Commun. 2024 Feb 26. 15(1): 1352
      Heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF) poses therapeutic challenges due to the limited treatment options. Building upon our previous research that demonstrates the efficacy of histone deacetylase 6 (HDAC6) inhibition in a genetic cardiomyopathy model, we investigate HDAC6's role in HFpEF due to their shared mechanisms of inflammation and metabolism. Here, we show that inhibiting HDAC6 with TYA-018 effectively reverses established heart failure and its associated symptoms in male HFpEF mouse models. Additionally, in male mice lacking Hdac6 gene, HFpEF progression is delayed and they are resistant to TYA-018's effects. The efficacy of TYA-018 is comparable to a sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitor, and the combination shows enhanced effects. Mechanistically, TYA-018 restores gene expression related to hypertrophy, fibrosis, and mitochondrial energy production in HFpEF heart tissues. Furthermore, TYA-018 also inhibits activation of human cardiac fibroblasts and enhances mitochondrial respiratory capacity in cardiomyocytes. In this work, our findings show that HDAC6 impacts on heart pathophysiology and is a promising target for HFpEF treatment.
  4. Mol Cell Biochem. 2024 Mar 02.
      While P21-activated kinase-1 (PAK1) has been extensively studied in relation to cardiovascular health and glucose metabolism, its roles within adipose tissue and cardiometabolic diseases are less understood. In this study, we explored the effects of PAK1 deletion on energy balance, adipose tissue homeostasis, and cardiac function utilizing a whole-body PAK1 knockout (PAK1-/-) mouse model. Our findings revealed that body weight differences between PAK1-/- and WT mice emerged at 9 weeks of age, with further increases observed at 12 weeks. Furthermore, PAK1-/- mice displayed increased fat mass and decreased lean mass at 12 weeks, indicating a shift towards adiposity. In conjunction with the increased body weight, PAK1-/- mice had increased food intake and reduced energy expenditure. At a mechanistic level, PAK1 deletion boosted the expression of lipogenic markers while diminishing thermogenic markers expression in adipose tissues, contributing to reduced energy expenditure and the overall obesogenic phenotype. Moreover, our findings highlighted a significant impact on cardiac function following PAK1 deletion, including alterations in calcium kinetics and compromised systolic and lusitropy functions. In summary, our study emphasizes the significant role of PAK1 in weight regulation and cardiac function, enriching our comprehension of heart health and metabolism. These findings could potentially facilitate the identification of novel therapeutic targets in cardiometabolic diseases.
    Keywords:  Adipose tissue; Cardiac function; Metabolism; P21-activated kinase-1 (PAK1); Thermogenesis
  5. Obesity (Silver Spring). 2024 Feb 27.
      OBJECTIVE: The authors sought to understand sex differences in muscle metabolism in 73 older men and women.METHODS: Body composition, VO2 max, and insulin sensitivity (M) by 3-hour hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp with vastus lateralis muscle biopsies were measured.
    RESULTS: Women had lower body weight, VO2 max, and fat-free mass than men. Men had lower M, lower change (insulin minus basal) in muscle glycogen synthase (GS) activity, and lower change in AKT protein expression than women. M was associated with the change (insulin-basal) in GS activity and the change in AKT protein expression. Sex differences (n = 60) were tested with 6-month weight loss or 3×/week aerobic exercise training. The postintervention minus preintervention change (insulin-basal) (∆∆) in GS activity (fractional, independent, total) was higher in men than women in the weight loss group and ∆∆ in GS fractional activity was higher in women than men in the aerobic exercise group. In all participants, ∆∆ in GS fractional and independent activities was related to ∆∆ in AKT expression and glycogen content.
    CONCLUSIONS: Sex differences in insulin sensitivity may be explained at the cellular muscle level, and to improve skeletal muscle insulin action in older adults, it may be necessary to recommend different behavioral strategies depending on the individual's sex.
  6. Nat Metab. 2024 Feb 27.
      Our current understanding of mitochondrial organelle physiology has benefited from two broad approaches: classically, cuvette-based measurements with suspensions of isolated mitochondria, in which bioenergetic parameters are monitored acutely in response to respiratory chain substrates and inhibitors1-4, and more recently, highly scalable genetic screens for fitness phenotypes associated with coarse-grained properties of the mitochondrial state5-10. Here we introduce permeabilized-cell mitochondrial function sequencing (PMF-seq) to combine strengths of these two approaches to connect genes to detailed bioenergetic phenotypes. In PMF-seq, the plasma membranes within a pool of CRISPR mutagenized cells are gently permeabilized under conditions that preserve mitochondrial physiology, where detailed bioenergetics can be probed in the same way as with isolated organelles. Cells with desired bioenergetic parameters are selected optically using flow cytometry and subjected to next-generation sequencing. Using PMF-seq, we recover genes differentially required for mitochondrial respiratory chain branching and reversibility. We demonstrate that human D-lactate dehydrogenase specifically conveys electrons from D-lactate into cytochrome c to support mitochondrial membrane polarization. Finally, we screen for genetic modifiers of tBID, a pro-apoptotic protein that acts directly and acutely on mitochondria. We find the loss of the complex V assembly factor ATPAF2 acts as a genetic sensitizer of tBID's acute action. We anticipate that PMF-seq will be valuable for defining genes critical to the physiology of mitochondria and other organelles.
  7. J Endocr Soc. 2024 Feb 19. 8(4): bvae029
      Body fat accumulation differs between males and females and is influenced by both gonadal sex (ovaries vs testes) and chromosomal sex (XX vs XY). We previously showed that an X chromosome gene, Kdm5c, is expressed at higher levels in females compared to males and correlates with adiposity in mice and humans. Kdm5c encodes a KDM5 histone demethylase that regulates gene expression by modulating histone methylation at gene promoters and enhancers. Here, we use chemical inhibition and genetic knockdown to identify a role for KDM5 activity during early stages of white and brown preadipocyte differentiation, with specific effects on white adipocyte clonal expansion, and white and brown adipocyte gene expression and mitochondrial activity. In white adipogenesis, KDM5 activity modulates H3K4 histone methylation at the Dlk1 gene promoter to repress gene expression and promote progression from preadipocytes to mature adipocytes. In brown adipogenesis, KDM5 activity modulates H3K4 methylation and gene expression of Ucp1, which is required for thermogenesis. Unbiased transcriptome analysis revealed that KDM5 activity regulates genes associated with cell cycle regulation and mitochondrial function, and this was confirmed by functional analyses of cell proliferation and cellular bioenergetics. Using genetic knockdown, we demonstrate that KDM5C is the likely KDM5 family member that is responsible for regulation of white and brown preadipocyte programming. Given that KDM5C levels are higher in females compared to males, our findings suggest that sex differences in white and brown preadipocyte gene regulation may contribute to sex differences in adipose tissue function.
    Keywords:  KDM5C; adipocyte differentiation; gene expression; mitochondrial respiration
  8. Front Nutr. 2024 ;11 1340735
      Introduction: Obesity is prevalent with the adult population in the United States. Energy-dense diets and erratic eating behavior contribute to obesity. Time-restricted eating is a dietary strategy in humans that has been advanced to reduce the propensity for obesity. We hypothesized that time-restricted feeding (TRF) would improve metabolic flexibility and normalize metabolic function in adult mice with established excess adiposity.Methods: Male C57BL/6NHsd mice were initially fed a high-fat diet (HFD) for 12 weeks to establish excess body adiposity, while control mice were fed a normal diet. Then, the HFD-fed mice were assigned to two groups, either ad libitum HFD or TRF of the HFD in the dark phase (12 h) for another 12 weeks.
    Results and discussion: Energy intake and body fat mass were similar in TRF and HFD-fed mice. TRF restored rhythmic oscillations of respiratory exchange ratio (RER), which had been flattened by the HFD, with greater RER amplitude in the dark phase. Insulin sensitivity was improved and plasma cholesterol and hepatic triacylglycerol were decreased by TRF. When compared to HFD, TRF decreased transcription of circadian genes Per1 and Per2 and genes encoding lipid metabolism (Acaca, Fads1, Fads2, Fasn, Scd1, and Srebf1) in liver. Metabolomic analysis showed that TRF created a profile that was distinct from those of mice fed the control diet or HFD, particularly in altered amino acid profiles. These included aminoacyl-tRNA-biosynthesis, glutathione metabolism, and phenylalanine, tyrosine, and tryptophan biosynthesis pathways. In conclusion, TRF improved metabolic function in adult mice with excess adiposity. This improvement was not through a reduction in body fat mass but through the restoration of metabolic flexibility.
    Keywords:  diet; excess adiposity; metabolomics; mice; time-restricted feeding
  9. Circ Heart Fail. 2024 Feb 27. e010569
      BACKGROUND: Exercise training can promote cardiac rehabilitation, thereby reducing cardiovascular disease mortality and hospitalization rates. MicroRNAs (miRs) are closely related to heart disease, among which miR-574-3p plays an important role in myocardial remodeling, but its role in exercise-mediated cardioprotection is still unclear.METHODS: A mouse myocardial hypertrophy model was established by transverse aortic coarctation, and a 4-week swimming exercise training was performed 1 week after the operation. After swimming training, echocardiography was used to evaluate cardiac function in mice, and histopathologic staining was used to detect cardiac hypertrophy, myocardial fibrosis, and cardiac inflammation. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction was used to detect the expression levels of miR-574-3p and cardiac hypertrophy markers. Western blotting detected the IL-6 (interleukin-6)/JAK/STAT inflammatory signaling pathway.
    RESULTS: Echocardiography and histochemical staining found that aerobic exercise significantly improved pressure overload-induced myocardial hypertrophy (n=6), myocardial interstitial fibrosis (n=6), and cardiac inflammation (n=6). Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction detection showed that aerobic exercise upregulated the expression level of miR-574-3p (n=6). After specific knockdown of miR-574-3p in mouse hearts with adeno-associated virus 9 using cardiac troponin T promoter, we found that the protective effect of exercise training on the heart was significantly reversed. Echocardiography and histopathologic staining showed that inhibiting the expression of miR-574-3p could partially block the effects of aerobic exercise on cardiac function (n=6), cardiomyocyte cross-sectional area (n=6), and myocardial fibrosis (n=6). Western blotting and immunohistochemical staining showed that the inhibitory effects of aerobic exercise on the IL-6/JAK/STAT pathway and cardiac inflammation were partially abolished after miR-574-3p knockdown. Furthermore, we also found that miR-574-3p exerts cardioprotective effects in cardiomyocytes by targeting IL-6 (n=3).
    CONCLUSIONS: Aerobic exercise protects cardiac hypertrophy and inflammation induced by pressure overload by upregulating miR-574-3p and inhibiting the IL-6/JAK/STAT pathway.
    Keywords:  cardiovascular diseases; diet, healthy; exercise; microRNAs; public health
  10. Circ Res. 2024 Mar;134(5): 505-525
      BACKGROUND: Chronic overconsumption of lipids followed by their excessive accumulation in the heart leads to cardiomyopathy. The cause of lipid-induced cardiomyopathy involves a pivotal role for the proton-pump vacuolar-type H+-ATPase (v-ATPase), which acidifies endosomes, and for lipid-transporter CD36, which is stored in acidified endosomes. During lipid overexposure, an increased influx of lipids into cardiomyocytes is sensed by v-ATPase, which then disassembles, causing endosomal de-acidification and expulsion of stored CD36 from the endosomes toward the sarcolemma. Once at the sarcolemma, CD36 not only increases lipid uptake but also interacts with inflammatory receptor TLR4 (Toll-like receptor 4), together resulting in lipid-induced insulin resistance, inflammation, fibrosis, and cardiac dysfunction. Strategies inducing v-ATPase reassembly, that is, to achieve CD36 reinternalization, may correct these maladaptive alterations. For this, we used NAD+ (nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide)-precursor nicotinamide mononucleotide (NMN), inducing v-ATPase reassembly by stimulating glycolytic enzymes to bind to v-ATPase.METHODS: Rats/mice on cardiomyopathy-inducing high-fat diets were supplemented with NMN and for comparison with a cocktail of lysine/leucine/arginine (mTORC1 [mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 1]-mediated v-ATPase reassembly). We used the following methods: RNA sequencing, mRNA/protein expression analysis, immunofluorescence microscopy, (co)immunoprecipitation/proximity ligation assay (v-ATPase assembly), myocellular uptake of [3H]chloroquine (endosomal pH), and [14C]palmitate, targeted lipidomics, and echocardiography. To confirm the involvement of v-ATPase in the beneficial effects of both supplementations, mTORC1/v-ATPase inhibitors (rapamycin/bafilomycin A1) were administered. Additionally, 2 heart-specific v-ATPase-knockout mouse models (subunits V1G1/V0d2) were subjected to these measurements. Mechanisms were confirmed in pharmacologically/genetically manipulated cardiomyocyte models of lipid overload.
    RESULTS: NMN successfully preserved endosomal acidification during myocardial lipid overload by maintaining v-ATPase activity and subsequently prevented CD36-mediated lipid accumulation, CD36-TLR4 interaction toward inflammation, fibrosis, cardiac dysfunction, and whole-body insulin resistance. Lipidomics revealed C18:1-enriched diacylglycerols as lipid class prominently increased by high-fat diet and subsequently reversed/preserved by lysine/leucine/arginine/NMN treatment. Studies with mTORC1/v-ATPase inhibitors and heart-specific v-ATPase-knockout mice further confirmed the pivotal roles of v-ATPase in these beneficial actions.
    CONCLUSION: NMN preserves heart function during lipid overload by preventing v-ATPase disassembly.
    Keywords:  diabetic cardiomyopathies; endosomes; fibrosis; insulin resistance; lipid metabolism; toll-like receptor 4
  11. Obes Rev. 2024 Feb 26. e13724
      Chronic inflammation of adipose tissue is a prominent characteristic of many metabolic diseases. Lipid metabolism in adipose tissue is consistently dysregulated during inflammation, which is characterized by substantial infiltration by proinflammatory cells and high cytokine concentrations. Adipose tissue inflammation is caused by a variety of endogenous factors, such as mitochondrial dysfunction, reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, cellular senescence, ceramides biosynthesis and mediators of lipopolysaccharides (LPS) signaling. Additionally, the gut microbiota also plays a crucial role in regulating adipose tissue inflammation. Essentially, adipose tissue inflammation arises from an imbalance in adipocyte metabolism and the regulation of immune cells. Specific inflammatory signals, including nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) signaling, inflammasome signaling and inflammation-mediated autophagy, have been shown to be involved in the metabolic regulation. The pathogenesis of metabolic diseases characterized by chronic inflammation (obesity, insulin resistance, atherosclerosis and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease [NAFLD]) and recent research regarding potential therapeutic targets for these conditions are also discussed in this review.
    Keywords:  adipose tissue; inflammation; lipid metabolism; metabolic diseases