bims-mimcad Biomed News
on Mitochondrial metabolism and cardiometabolic diseases
Issue of 2024‒02‒25
ten papers selected by
Henver Brunetta, University of Guelph

  1. JCI Insight. 2024 Feb 22. pii: e174125. [Epub ahead of print]9(4):
      BACKGROUNDWhile the benefits of statin therapy on atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease are clear, patients often experience mild to moderate skeletal myopathic symptoms, the mechanism for which is unknown. This study investigated the potential effect of high-dose atorvastatin therapy on skeletal muscle mitochondrial function and whole-body aerobic capacity in humans.METHODSEight overweight (BMI, 31.9 ± 2.0) but otherwise healthy sedentary adults (4 females, 4 males) were studied before (day 0) and 14, 28, and 56 days after initiating atorvastatin (80 mg/d) therapy.RESULTSMaximal ADP-stimulated respiration, measured in permeabilized fiber bundles from muscle biopsies taken at each time point, declined gradually over the course of atorvastatin treatment, resulting in > 30% loss of skeletal muscle mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation capacity by day 56. Indices of in vivo muscle oxidative capacity (via near-infrared spectroscopy) decreased by 23% to 45%. In whole muscle homogenates from day 0 biopsies, atorvastatin inhibited complex III activity at midmicromolar concentrations, whereas complex IV activity was inhibited at low nanomolar concentrations.CONCLUSIONThese findings demonstrate that high-dose atorvastatin treatment elicits a striking progressive decline in skeletal muscle mitochondrial respiratory capacity, highlighting the need for longer-term dose-response studies in different patient populations to thoroughly define the effect of statin therapy on skeletal muscle health.FUNDINGNIH R01 AR071263.
    Keywords:  Bioenergetics; Mitochondria; Muscle biology; Skeletal muscle
  2. Acta Physiol (Oxf). 2024 Feb 23. e14119
      AIM: Sarcopenia, the aging-related loss of muscle mass and function, is a debilitating process negatively impacting the quality of life of affected individuals. Although the mechanisms underlying sarcopenia are incompletely understood, impairments in mitochondrial dynamics, including mitochondrial fusion, have been proposed as a contributing factor. However, the potential of upregulating mitochondrial fusion proteins to alleviate the effects of aging on skeletal muscles remains unexplored. We therefore hypothesized that overexpressing Mitofusin 2 (MFN2) in skeletal muscle in vivo would mitigate the effects of aging on muscle mass and improve mitochondrial function.METHODS: MFN2 was overexpressed in young (7 mo) and old (24 mo) male mice for 4 months through intramuscular injections of an adeno-associated viruses. The impacts of MFN2 overexpression on muscle mass and fiber size (histology), mitochondrial respiration, and H2 O2 emission (Oroboros fluororespirometry), and various signaling pathways (qPCR and western blotting) were investigated.
    RESULTS: MFN2 overexpression increased muscle mass and fiber size in both young and old mice. No sign of fibrosis, necrosis, or inflammation was found upon MFN2 overexpression, indicating that the hypertrophy triggered by MFN2 overexpression was not pathological. MFN2 overexpression even reduced the proportion of fibers with central nuclei in old muscles. Importantly, MFN2 overexpression had no impact on muscle mitochondrial respiration and H2 O2 emission in both young and old mice. MFN2 overexpression attenuated the increase in markers of impaired autophagy in old muscles.
    CONCLUSION: MFN2 overexpression may be a viable approach to mitigate aging-related muscle atrophy and may have applications for other muscle disorders.
    Keywords:  autophagy; mitochondria; mitochondrial dynamics; mitochondrial fusion; mitofusin 2; sarcopenia; skeletal muscle aging
  3. Biochem J. 2024 Feb 23. pii: BCJ20230421. [Epub ahead of print]
      Cardiac mitochondrial dysfunction is a critical contributor to the pathogenesis of aging and many age-related conditions. As such, complete control of mitochondrial function is critical to maintain cardiac efficiency in the aged heart. Lysine acetylation is a reversible post-translational modification shown to regulate several mitochondrial metabolic and biochemical processes. In the present study, we investigated how mitochondrial lysine acetylation regulates fatty acid oxidation and cardiac function in the aged heart. We found a significant increase in mitochondrial protein acetylation in the aged heart which correlated with increased level of mitochondrial acetyltransferase-related protein GCN5L1. We showed that acetylation status of several fatty acid and glucose oxidation enzymes (long-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase, hydroxyacyl-coA dehydrogenase, and pyruvate dehydrogenase) were significantly upregulated in aged heart which correlated with decreased enzymatic activities. Using a cardiac-specific GCN5L1 knockout animal model, we showed that overall acetylation of mitochondrial proteins was decreased in aged knockout animals, including fatty acid oxidation proteins which led to improved fatty acid oxidation activity and attenuated cardiac diastolic dysfunction observed in the aged heart. Together, these findings indicate that lysine acetylation regulates fatty acid oxidation in the aged heart which results in improved cardiac diastolic function and this is in part regulated by GCN5L1.
    Keywords:  aging; cardiac function; fatty acid oxidation; lysine acetylation; mitochondria
  4. Metabolism. 2024 Feb 17. pii: S0026-0495(24)00044-1. [Epub ahead of print]154 155818
      BACKGROUND: Cardiac glucose oxidation is decreased in heart failure with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF), contributing to a decrease in myocardial ATP production. In contrast, circulating ketones and cardiac ketone oxidation are increased in HFrEF. Since ketones compete with glucose as a fuel source, we aimed to determine whether increasing ketone concentration both chronically with the SGLT2 inhibitor, dapagliflozin, or acutely in the perfusate has detrimental effects on cardiac glucose oxidation in HFrEF, and what effect this has on cardiac ATP production.METHODS: 8-week-old male C57BL6/N mice underwent sham or transverse aortic constriction (TAC) surgery to induce HFrEF over 3 weeks, after which TAC mice were randomized to treatment with either vehicle or the SGLT2 inhibitor, dapagliflozin (DAPA), for 4 weeks (raises blood ketones). Cardiac function was assessed by echocardiography. Cardiac energy metabolism was measured in isolated working hearts perfused with 5 mM glucose, 0.8 mM palmitate, and either 0.2 mM or 0.6 mM β-hydroxybutyrate (βOHB).
    RESULTS: TAC hearts had significantly decreased %EF compared to sham hearts, with no effect of DAPA. Glucose oxidation was significantly decreased in TAC hearts compared to sham hearts and did not decrease further in TAC hearts treated with high βOHB or in TAC DAPA hearts, despite βOHB oxidation rates increasing in both TAC vehicle and TAC DAPA hearts at high βOHB concentrations. Rather, increasing βOHB supply to the heart selectively decreased fatty acid oxidation rates. DAPA significantly increased ATP production at both βOHB concentrations by increasing the contribution of glucose oxidation to ATP production.
    CONCLUSION: Therefore, increasing ketone concentration increases energy supply and ATP production in HFrEF without further impairing glucose oxidation.
    Keywords:  HFrEF; Ketone oxidation; SGLT2 inhibition
  5. J Biol Chem. 2024 Feb 15. pii: S0021-9258(24)00136-4. [Epub ahead of print] 105760
      In the cold, the absence of the mitochondrial uncoupling protein-1 (UCP1) results in hyper-recruitment of beige fat, but classical brown fat becomes atrophied. Here we examine possible mechanisms underlying this phenomenon. We confirm that in brown fat from UCP1-KO mice acclimated to the cold, the levels of mitochondrial respiratory chain proteins were diminished; however, in beige fat the mitochondria seemed to be unaffected. The macrophages that accumulated massively not only in brown fat but also in beige fat of the UCP1-KO mice acclimated to cold did not express tyrosine hydroxylase, the norepinephrine transporter (NET) and monoamine oxidase-A (MAO-A). Consequently, they could not influence the tissues through the synthesis or degradation of norepinephrine. Unexpectedly, in the cold, both brown and beige adipocytes from UCP1-KO mice acquired an ability to express MAO-A. Adipose tissue norepinephrine was exclusively of sympathetic origin, and sympathetic innervation significantly increased in both tissues of UCP1-KO mice. Importantly, the magnitude of sympathetic innervation and the expression levels of genes induced by adrenergic stimulation were much higher in brown fat. Therefore, we conclude that no qualitative differences in innervation or macrophage character could explain the contrasting reactions of brown versus beige adipose tissues to UCP1-ablation. Instead, these contrasting responses may be explained by quantitative differences in sympathetic innervation: the beige adipose depot from the UCP1-KO mice responded to cold acclimation in a canonical manner and displayed enhanced recruitment, while the atrophy of brown fat lacking UCP1 may be seen as a consequence of supraphysiological adrenergic stimulation in this tissue.
    Keywords:  MAO-A; UCP1; adipocyte; beige adipose tissue; brown adipose tissue; gene knockout; immunohistochemistry; macrophage; sympathetic nerves; western blot
  6. Cell Rep. 2024 Feb 21. pii: S2211-1247(24)00100-1. [Epub ahead of print]43(3): 113772
      The mitochondrial inner membrane plays central roles in bioenergetics and metabolism and contains several established membrane protein complexes. Here, we report the identification of a mega-complex of the inner membrane, termed mitochondrial multifunctional assembly (MIMAS). Its large size of 3 MDa explains why MIMAS has escaped detection in the analysis of mitochondria so far. MIMAS combines proteins of diverse functions from respiratory chain assembly to metabolite transport, dehydrogenases, and lipid biosynthesis but not the large established supercomplexes of the respiratory chain, ATP synthase, or prohibitin scaffold. MIMAS integrity depends on the non-bilayer phospholipid phosphatidylethanolamine, in contrast to respiratory supercomplexes whose stability depends on cardiolipin. Our findings suggest that MIMAS forms a protein-lipid mega-assembly in the mitochondrial inner membrane that integrates respiratory biogenesis and metabolic processes in a multifunctional platform.
    Keywords:  CP: Metabolism; CP: Molecular biology; membrane protein complex; metabolism; metabolite carriers; mitochondria; phosphatidylethanolamine; phospholipids; protein assembly; respiratory chain
  7. Nat Metab. 2024 Feb 20.
      Uptake of circulating succinate by brown adipose tissue (BAT) and beige fat elevates whole-body energy expenditure, counteracts obesity and antagonizes systemic tissue inflammation in mice. The plasma membrane transporters that facilitate succinate uptake in these adipocytes remain undefined. Here we elucidate a mechanism underlying succinate import into BAT via monocarboxylate transporters (MCTs). We show that succinate transport is strongly dependent on the proportion that is present in the monocarboxylate form. MCTs facilitate monocarboxylate succinate uptake, which is promoted by alkalinization of the cytosol driven by adrenoreceptor stimulation. In brown adipocytes, we show that MCT1 primarily facilitates succinate import. In male mice, we show that both acute pharmacological inhibition of MCT1 and congenital depletion of MCT1 decrease succinate uptake into BAT and consequent catabolism. In sum, we define a mechanism of succinate uptake in BAT that underlies its protective activity in mouse models of metabolic disease.
  8. iScience. 2024 Mar 15. 27(3): 109078
      Energy transduction is central to living organisms, but the impact of enzyme regulation and signaling on its thermodynamic efficiency is generally overlooked. Here, we analyze the efficiency of ATP production by the tricarboxylic acid cycle and oxidative phosphorylation, which generate most of the chemical energy in eukaryotes. Calcium signaling regulates this pathway and can affect its energetic output, but the concrete energetic impact of this cross-talk remains elusive. Calcium enhances ATP production by activating key enzymes of the tricarboxylic acid cycle while calcium homeostasis is ATP-dependent. We propose a detailed kinetic model describing the calcium-mitochondria cross-talk and analyze it using nonequilibrium thermodynamics: after identifying the effective reactions driving mitochondrial metabolism out of equilibrium, we quantify the mitochondrial thermodynamic efficiency for different conditions. Calcium oscillations, triggered by extracellular stimulation or energy deficiency, boost the thermodynamic efficiency of mitochondrial metabolism, suggesting a compensatory role of calcium signaling in mitochondrial bioenergetics.
    Keywords:  Biological sciences; Human metabolism; Molecular biology; Natural sciences
  9. Biochim Biophys Acta Bioenerg. 2024 Feb 16. pii: S0005-2728(24)00003-3. [Epub ahead of print] 149033
      Mitochondrial and thus cellular energetics are highly regulated both thermodynamically and kinetically. Cellular energetics is of prime importance in the regulation of cellular functions since it provides ATP for their accomplishment. However, cellular energetics is not only about ATP production but also about the ability to re-oxidize reduced coenzymes at a proper rate, such that the cellular redox potential remains at a level compatible with enzymatic reactions. However, this parameter is not only difficult to assess due to its dual compartmentation (mitochondrial and cytosolic) but also because it is well known that most NADH in the cells is bound to the enzymes. In this paper, we investigated the potential relevance of mitochondrial quinones redox state as a marker of mitochondrial metabolism and more particularly mitochondrial redox state. We were able to show that Q2 is an appropriate redox mediator to assess the mitochondrial quinone redox states. On isolated mitochondria, the mitochondrial quinone redox states depend on the mitochondrial substrate and the mitochondrial energetic state (phosphorylating or not phosphorylating). Last but not least, we show that the quinones redox state response allows to better understand the Krebs cycle functioning and respiratory substrates oxidation. Taken together, our results suggest that the quinones redox state is an excellent marker of mitochondrial metabolism.
    Keywords:  Bioenergetics; Mitochondria respiratory chain; Quinones; Redox state
  10. Cell Metab. 2024 Feb 12. pii: S1550-4131(24)00015-9. [Epub ahead of print]
      Aging is underpinned by pronounced metabolic decline; however, the drivers remain obscure. Here, we report that IgG accumulates during aging, particularly in white adipose tissue (WAT), to impair adipose tissue function and metabolic health. Caloric restriction (CR) decreases IgG accumulation in WAT, whereas replenishing IgG counteracts CR's metabolic benefits. IgG activates macrophages via Ras signaling and consequently induces fibrosis in WAT through the TGF-β/SMAD pathway. Consistently, B cell null mice are protected from aging-associated WAT fibrosis, inflammation, and insulin resistance, unless exposed to IgG. Conditional ablation of the IgG recycling receptor, neonatal Fc receptor (FcRn), in macrophages prevents IgG accumulation in aging, resulting in prolonged healthspan and lifespan. Further, targeting FcRn by antisense oligonucleotide restores WAT integrity and metabolic health in aged mice. These findings pinpoint IgG as a hidden culprit in aging and enlighten a novel strategy to rejuvenate metabolic health.
    Keywords:  IgG; adipose tissue; aging; fibrosis; metabolic dysfunction