bims-mimbat Biomed News
on Mitochondrial metabolism in brown adipose tissue
Issue of 2023‒12‒10
eleven papers selected by
José Carlos de Lima-Júnior, Washington University

  1. FEBS Lett. 2023 Dec 06.
      Since its discovery, a major debate about mitochondrial uncoupling protein 3 (UCP3) has been whether its metabolic actions result primarily from mitochondrial inner membrane proton transport, a process that decreases respiratory efficiency and ATP synthesis. However, UCP3 expression and activity are induced by conditions that would seem at odds with inefficient "uncoupled" respiration, including fasting and exercise. Here we demonstrate that the bacterially expressed human UCP3, reconstituted into liposomes, catalyses a strict exchange of aspartate, malate, oxaloacetate, and phosphate. The R282Q mutation abolishes the transport activity of the protein. Although the substrate specificity and inhibitor sensitivity of UCP3 display similarity with that of its close homolog UCP2, the two proteins significantly differ in their transport mode and kinetic constants.
    Keywords:  amino acid transport; anion transport; bioenergetics; mitochondrial metabolism; mitochondrial transport; uncoupling protein
  2. PLoS Biol. 2023 Dec 04. 21(12): e3002413
      Brown adipose tissue (BAT) dissipates energy as heat, contributing to temperature control, energy expenditure, and systemic homeostasis. In adult humans, BAT mainly exists in supraclavicular areas and its prevalence is associated with cardiometabolic health. However, the developmental origin of supraclavicular BAT remains unknown. Here, using genetic cell marking in mice, we demonstrate that supraclavicular brown adipocytes do not develop from the Pax3+/Myf5+ epaxial dermomyotome that gives rises to interscapular BAT (iBAT). Instead, the Tbx1+ lineage that specifies the pharyngeal mesoderm marks the majority of supraclavicular brown adipocytes. Tbx1Cre-mediated ablation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ) or PR/SET Domain 16 (PRDM16), components of the transcriptional complex for brown fat determination, leads to supraclavicular BAT paucity or dysfunction, thus rendering mice more sensitive to cold exposure. Moreover, human deep neck BAT expresses higher levels of the TBX1 gene than subcutaneous neck white adipocytes. Taken together, our observations reveal location-specific developmental origins of BAT depots and call attention to Tbx1+ lineage cells when investigating human relevant supraclavicular BAT.
  3. Cell Rep. 2023 Dec 01. pii: S2211-1247(23)01516-4. [Epub ahead of print]42(12): 113504
      Bisphenol S (BPS) exposure has been implied epidemiologically to increase obesity risk, but the underlying mechanism is unclear. Here, we propose that BPS exposure at an environmentally relevant dose aggravates diet-induced obesity in female mice by inducing brown adipose tissue (BAT) whitening. We explored the underlying mechanism by which KDM5A-associated demethylation of the trimethylation of lysine 4 on histone H3 (H3K4me3) in thermogenic genes is overactivated in BAT upon BPS exposure, leading to the reduced expression of thermogenic genes. Further studies have suggested that BPS activates KDM5A transcription in BAT by binding to glucocorticoid receptor (GR) in an estrogen-dependent manner. Estrogen-estrogen receptors facilitate the accessibility of the KDM5A gene promoter to BPS-activated GR by recruiting the activator protein 1 (AP-1) complex. These results indicate that BAT is another important target of BPS and that targeting KDM5A-related signals may serve as an approach to counteract the BPS-induced susceptivity to obesity.
    Keywords:  CP: Metabolism; CP: Molecular biology; bisphenol S; brown adipose tissue; lysine demethylase 5A; obesity; trimethylation of lysine 4 on histone H3
  4. J Physiol. 2023 Dec 05.
      The impact of training status and sex on intrinsic skeletal muscle mitochondrial respiratory capacity remains unclear. We examined this by analysing human skeletal muscle mitochondrial respiration relative to mitochondrial volume and cristae density across training statuses and sexes. Mitochondrial cristae density was estimated in skeletal muscle biopsies originating from previous independent studies. Participants included females (n = 12) and males (n = 41) across training statuses ranging from untrained (UT, n = 8), recreationally active (RA, n = 9), active-to-elite runners (RUN, n = 27) and cross-country skiers (XC, n = 9). The XC and RUN groups demonstrated higher mitochondrial volume density than the RA and UT groups while all active groups (RA, RUN and XC) displayed higher mass-specific capacity of oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) and mitochondrial cristae density than UT. Differences in OXPHOS diminished between active groups and UT when normalising to mitochondrial volume density and were lost when normalising to muscle cristae surface area density. Moreover, active females (n = 6-9) and males (n = 15-18) did not differ in mitochondrial volume and cristae density, OXPHOS, or when normalising OXPHOS to mitochondrial volume density and muscle cristae surface area density. These findings demonstrate: (1) differences in OXPHOS between active and untrained individuals may be explained by both higher mitochondrial volume and cristae density in active individuals, with no difference in intrinsic mitochondrial respiratory capacity (OXPHOS per muscle cristae surface area density); and (2) no sex differences in mitochondrial volume and cristae density or mass-specific and normalised OXPHOS. This highlights the importance of normalising OXPHOS to muscle cristae surface area density when studying skeletal muscle mitochondrial biology. KEY POINTS: Oxidative phosphorylation is the mitochondrial process by which ATP is produced, governed by the electrochemical gradient across the inner mitochondrial membrane with infoldings named cristae. In human skeletal muscle, the mass-specific capacity of oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) can change independently of shifts in mitochondrial volume density, which may be attributed to variations in cristae density. We demonstrate that differences in skeletal muscle OXPHOS between healthy females and males, ranging from untrained to elite endurance athletes, are matched by differences in cristae density. This suggests that higher OXPHOS in skeletal muscles of active individuals is attributable to an increase in the density of cristae. These findings broaden our understanding of the variability in human skeletal muscle OXPHOS and highlight the significance of cristae, specific to mitochondrial respiration.
    Keywords:  intrinsic mitochondrial respiratory capacity; mitochondria; mitochondrial cristae density; oxidative phosphorylation; sex; skeletal muscle; training status
  5. bioRxiv. 2023 Nov 21. pii: 2023.11.21.568136. [Epub ahead of print]
      Ischemic tissues accumulate succinate, which is rapidly oxidized upon reperfusion, driving a burst of mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation that triggers cell death. In isolated mitochondria with succinate as the sole metabolic substrate under non-phosphorylating conditions, 90% of ROS generation is from reverse electron transfer (RET) at the Q site of respiratory complex I (Cx-I). Together, these observations suggest Cx-I RET is the source of pathologic ROS in reperfusion injury. However, numerous factors present in early reperfusion may impact Cx-I RET, including: (i) High [NADH]; (ii) High [lactate]; (iii) Mildly acidic pH; (iv) Defined ATP/ADP ratios; (v) Presence of the nucleosides adenosine and inosine; and (vi) Defined free [Ca 2+ ]. Herein, experiments with mouse cardiac mitochondria revealed that under simulated early reperfusion conditions including these factors, overall mitochondrial ROS generation was only 56% of that seen with succinate alone, and only 52% of this ROS was assignable to Cx-I RET. The residual non-RET ROS could be partially assigned to complex III (Cx-III) with the remainder likely originating from other ROS sources upstream of the Cx-I Q site. Together, these data suggest the relative contribution of Cx-I RET ROS to reperfusion injury may be overestimated, and other ROS sources may contribute a significant fraction of ROS in early reperfusion.
  6. Cell Metab. 2023 Dec 05. pii: S1550-4131(23)00414-X. [Epub ahead of print]35(12): 2165-2182.e7
      A ketogenic diet (KD) has been promoted as an obesity management diet, yet its underlying mechanism remains elusive. Here we show that KD reduces energy intake and body weight in humans, pigs, and mice, accompanied by elevated circulating growth differentiation factor 15 (GDF15). In GDF15- or its receptor GFRAL-deficient mice, these effects of KD disappeared, demonstrating an essential role of GDF15-GFRAL signaling in KD-mediated weight loss. Gdf15 mRNA level increases in hepatocytes upon KD feeding, and knockdown of Gdf15 by AAV8 abrogated the obesity management effect of KD in mice, corroborating a hepatic origin of GDF15 production. We show that KD activates hepatic PPARγ, which directly binds to the regulatory region of Gdf15, increasing its transcription and production. Hepatic Pparγ-knockout mice show low levels of plasma GDF15 and significantly diminished obesity management effects of KD, which could be restored by either hepatic Gdf15 overexpression or recombinant GDF15 administration. Collectively, our study reveals a previously unexplored GDF15-dependent mechanism underlying KD-mediated obesity management.
    Keywords:  GDF15; GFRAL; hepatic PPARγ; ketogenic diet; obesity
  7. Sci Adv. 2023 Dec 08. 9(49): eadf9522
      Mitochondria use different substrates for energy production and intermediatory metabolism according to the availability of nutrients and oxygen levels. The role of mitochondrial metabolic flexibility for CD8+ T cell immune response is poorly understood. Here, we report that the deletion or pharmacological inhibition of protein tyrosine phosphatase, mitochondrial 1 (PTPMT1) significantly decreased CD8+ effector T cell development and clonal expansion. In addition, PTPMT1 deletion impaired stem-like CD8+ T cell maintenance and accelerated CD8+ T cell exhaustion/dysfunction, leading to aggravated tumor growth. Mechanistically, the loss of PTPMT1 critically altered mitochondrial fuel selection-the utilization of pyruvate, a major mitochondrial substrate derived from glucose-was inhibited, whereas fatty acid utilization was enhanced. Persistent mitochondrial substrate shift and metabolic inflexibility induced oxidative stress, DNA damage, and apoptosis in PTPMT1 knockout cells. Collectively, this study reveals an important role of PTPMT1 in facilitating mitochondrial utilization of carbohydrates and that mitochondrial flexibility in energy source selection is critical for CD8+ T cell antitumor immunity.
  8. FEBS Open Bio. 2023 Dec 04.
      Hepatocytes can switch their metabolic processes in response to nutrient availability. However, the dynamics of metabolites (such as lactate, pyruvate, and ATP) in hepatocytes during the metabolic switch remain unknown. In this study, we visualized metabolite dynamics in primary cultured hepatocytes during recovery from glucose-deprivation. We observed a decrease in the mitochondrial ATP concentration when glucose was administered to hepatocytes under glucose-deprivation conditions. In contrast, there was slight change in the cytoplasmic ATP concentration. A decrease in mitochondrial ATP concentration was associated with increased protein synthesis rather than glycogen synthesis, activation of urea cycle, and production of reactive oxygen species. These results suggest that mitochondrial ATP is important in switching metabolic processes in the hepatocytes.
    Keywords:  ATP; glucose-deprivation; hepatocyte; live-cell imaging; mitochondria
  9. J Physiol. 2023 Dec 04.
      It is unclear how skeletal muscle metabolism and mitochondrial function adapt to long duration bed rest and whether changes can be prevented by nutritional intervention. The present study aimed (1) to assess the effect of prolonged bed rest on skeletal muscle mitochondrial function and dynamics and (2) to determine whether micronutrient supplementation would mitigate the adverse metabolic effect of bed rest. Participants were maintained in energy balance throughout 60 days of bed rest with micronutrient supplementation (INT) (body mass index: 23.747 ± 1.877 kg m-2 ; 34.80 ± 7.451 years; n = 10) or without (control) (body mass index: 24.087 ± 2.088 kg m-2 ; 33.50 ± 8.541 years; n = 10). Indirect calorimetry and dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry were used for measures of energy expenditure, exercise capacity and body composition. Mitochondrial respiration was determined by high-resolution respirometry in permeabilized muscle fibre bundles from vastus lateralis biopsies. Protein and mRNA analysis further examined the metabolic changes relating to regulators of mitochondrial dynamics induced by bed rest. INT was not sufficient in preserving whole body metabolic changes conducive of a decrease in body mass, fat-free mass and exercise capacity within both groups. Mitochondrial respiration, OPA1 and Drp1 protein expression decreased with bed rest, with an increase pDrp1s616 . This reduction in mitochondrial respiration was explained through an observed decrease in mitochondrial content (mtDNA:nDNA). Changes in regulators of mitochondrial dynamics indicate an increase in mitochondrial fission driven by a decrease in inner mitochondrial membrane fusion (OPA1) and increased pDrp1s616 . KEY POINTS: Sixty days of -6° head down tilt bed rest leads to significant changes in body composition, exercise capacity and whole-body substrate metabolism. Micronutrient supplementation throughout bed rest did not preserve whole body metabolic changes. Bed rest results in a decrease in skeletal muscle mitochondrial respiratory capacity, mainly as a result of an observed decrease in mitochondrial content. Prolonged bed rest ensues changes in key regulators of mitochondrial dynamics. OPA1 and Drp1 are significantly reduced, with an increase in pDrp1s616 following bed rest indicative of an increase in mitochondrial fission. Given the reduction in mitochondrial content following 60 days of bed rest, the maintenance of regulators of mitophagy in line with the increase in regulators of mitochondrial fission may act to maintain mitochondrial respiration to meet energy demands.
    Keywords:  OPA1; bed rest; energy expenditure; metabolism; mitochondrial dynamics; mitochondrial function; skeletal muscle
  10. Free Radic Biol Med. 2023 Dec 04. pii: S0891-5849(23)01142-5. [Epub ahead of print]
      Selenite as an inorganic form of selenium can affect the redox state of mitochondria by modifying the thiol groups of cysteines. The F1FO-ATPase has been identified as a mitochondrial target of this compound. Indeed, the bifunctional mechanism of ATP turnover of F1FO-ATPase was differently modified by selenite. The activity of ATP hydrolysis was stimulated, whereas the ADP phosphorylation was inhibited. We ascertain that a possible new protein adduct identified as seleno-dithiol (-S-Se-S-) mercaptoethanol-sensitive caused the activation of F-ATPase activity and the oxidation of free -SH groups in mitochondria. Conversely, the inhibition of ATP synthesis by selenite might be irreversible. The kinetic analysis of the activation mechanism was an uncompetitive mixed type with respect to the ATP substrate. Selenite bound more selectively to the F1FO-ATPase loaded with the substrate by preferentially forming a tertiary (enzyme-ATP-selenite) complex. Otherwise, the selenite was a competitive mixed-type activator with respect to the Mg2+ cofactor. Thus, selenite more specifically bound to the free enzyme forming the complex enzyme-selenite. However, even if the selenite impaired the catalysis of F1FO-ATPase, the mitochondrial permeability transition pore phenomenon was unaffected. Therefore, the reversible energy transduction mechanism of F1FO-ATPase can be oppositely regulated by selenite.
    Keywords:  F(1)F(O)-ATPase; Mitochondria; Oxidative phosphorylation; Selenite; Thiol groups
  11. Cell Rep. 2023 Dec 01. pii: S2211-1247(23)01540-1. [Epub ahead of print]42(12): 113528
      Apolipoproteins L1 and L3 (APOLs) are associated at the Golgi with the membrane fission factors phosphatidylinositol 4-kinase-IIIB (PI4KB) and non-muscular myosin 2A. Either APOL1 C-terminal truncation (APOL1Δ) or APOL3 deletion (APOL3-KO [knockout]) reduces PI4KB activity and triggers actomyosin reorganization. We report that APOL3, but not APOL1, controls PI4KB activity through interaction with PI4KB and neuronal calcium sensor-1 or calneuron-1. Both APOLs are present in Golgi-derived autophagy-related protein 9A vesicles, which are involved in PI4KB trafficking. Like APOL3-KO, APOL1Δ induces PI4KB dissociation from APOL3, linked to reduction of mitophagy flux and production of mitochondrial reactive oxygen species. APOL1 and APOL3, respectively, can interact with the mitophagy receptor prohibitin-2 and the mitophagosome membrane fusion factor vesicle-associated membrane protein-8 (VAMP8). While APOL1 conditions PI4KB and APOL3 involvement in mitochondrion fission and mitophagy, APOL3-VAMP8 interaction promotes fusion between mitophagosomal and endolysosomal membranes. We propose that APOL3 controls mitochondrial membrane dynamics through interactions with the fission factor PI4KB and the fusion factor VAMP8.
    Keywords:  APOL1 risk variants; COVAN; COVID-19-associated nephropathy; CP: Cell biology; HIV-associated nephropathy; HIVAN; inflammation; interferon 1; kidney disease; mitochondrion fission/fusion; mitophagy